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There were two main centers of Training for the Nike Ajax and Hercules systems:
- Redstone Arsenal (Huntsville Alabama) training for Ordnance people - a higher echelon of repair
- Ft. Bliss (El Paso, Texas), training for the people at the individual Nike sites.
Since I know nothing of Redstone, lets handle that first ;-))
Redstone Arsenal (Huntsville Alabama) training for Ordnance people - a higher echelon of repair
Check this web site by Doyle Piland
from Charles Everett
Nike Training Shop, Ordnance Guided Missile School
from Charles Everett
Nice photo of the school at Huntsville for the Nike Ajax course
Ft. Bliss (El Paso, Texas), training for the people at the individual Nike sites.
U.S. Army and U.S. allied personnel received formal Nike training at Ft. Bliss
Ft. Bliss, practically in El Paso, Texas, was the primary formal training site for anti-aircraft guns and missiles for the U.S. Army for about a century. (The function was moved in about 2005 to Ft. Sill - somewhere ;-)
Ft. Bliss (northeast of El Paso) and the three nearby missile ranges
Map from Winged Victory - The History of the Nike Missile Training Program At Fort Bliss 48 pages, 7 megabytes
North of center - "Red Canyon", for the earlier smaller Nike Ajax Center - White Sands Proving Ground, later called White Sands Missile Range SouthEast of Center - McGreggor Range, opened for the longer range Nike Hercules Low Center - Ft. Bliss, Army AA training until about 2007
I didn't have a camera in the army. Fortunately Jos Weijenberg took lots of pictures, and kindly shares them here.
- Ft. Bliss 1968
- Abandoned Nike-Hercules site, Schoppingen, Germany
- and the following aerial views of the El Paso area
White line - Our probable route on Mt. Franklin
in 1954 Nike Park?
Center of Ft. Bliss
The Army sent people to Ft. Bliss:
- to learn :-|
and of course, folks want to
- play :-))
The Army sent people to Ft. Bliss - to learn :-|
- Some people apparently were sent to Nike sites with little training on Nike equipment. These might include cooks, guards, ... whose expected duties did not include maintenance and/or operation of the equipment. I don't know much about that path.
- Operators of equipment often received some training at Fort Bliss (El Paso) Texas. I understand some were sent relatively unknowledgeable to a site to receive on-the-job training. Again, I am relatively ignorant about the percentage of folks receiving how much operator training. (I really had blinders on when I was in the Army!)
- Some, including my self, enlisted (in the late Korean Police Action) with some sort of promise of months of training (with an out for the Army if you were a bad student or otherwise bad.)
An example is Jerry Clodfelter describe:
- Entered Army during Viet Nam era with guaranteed Nike school . Military MOS 16C ( 1967 )ARADCOM
- After basic at Ft Bragg, moved to Ft Bliss , Texas for operators school ( 1967 ) Training in fire control operations of radars , MTR. TTR, Aq. Radar, and Computer
- 1968 - Transferred from Ft Bliss to Roberts, Wisconsin - 68 Art Gr- B Battery. Assigned to fire control computer / radar- - Participated in SNAP - battery sent to White Sands for live firing of Nike - MOS - 16C
- Late 1969- applied for MOS 23N ( computer/radar repairman ) . Sent to Redstone Arsenal - School lasted approx 1 year - Attended basic electronics, systems, and advanced systems. - Class of 12 with final of 10 people completing course.
- Orders received ( 1970 ) for transfer ( 23N MOS ) to Guided Missile Maintenance Shop - Ft Shafter , Hawaii - ( Ordnace ) . Worked with Hawaiian National Guard who maintained the four sites around Oahu. The guard did not want our help due to planned cut backs from Congress. However, we did critical maintenance when the guard could not fix.
- Many long term military people transferred to the Nike program and received training
For officers, see below.
Most of the operating people got their initial Nike training at Fort Bliss, (El Paso) Texas. I was assigned to class SAM-23 in the spring of 1954, and learned and trained on Nike Ajax fire control equipment (radars, computer) for a year at and near Ft. Bliss, Texas. Our class had about 35 people in it. We were of two major groups:
We got along together surprisingly well. The older army folks were very tolerant of us new techie recruits, and we new techie recruits were happy to help the older guys through technical points. To a surprising degree we partnered in school lab exercises, partied together in the Mexican bars, and were invited to the homes of the married sergeants.
- Young (19 to about 24) new enlistees that were interested in techie things. Most had done things like build radios in high school, had some technical training some where, and/or opened/worked in a radio/tv repair shop. Several of us were college drop-outs.
One classmate was a hale, hearty, friendly new American citizen, with a moderate German accent. - a blond Aryan right out of Nazi propaganda films - Now as an American citizen, he was subject to the American draft, so enlisted for three years to get one year of Nike training, and likely avoid active service in Korea as I had done. It soon came out that this was not his first experience with AA - During WWII, when he was 14 years old, he had loaded German 88 mm AA guns firing up at British and American bombers.
- Sergeants and warrant officers who had been in the artillery for probably 10 years, and were in for a big career change.
We privates got to "pull KP" - which meant getting roused extra early and missing a day of school. Later I could go through the schematics and point out the pages which had been discussed while I was on KP. :-(( We heard that the Air Force had a more enlightened attitude about students missing school for KP. :-((
There was an optional night school where people from many classes could get extra help from the knowledgeable staff. People who were slow (poor in tests) in school were obligated to attend night school to review and catch up. I got to spend a week in "dumb-dumb" night school after a sharp disagreement with an instructor about how to align a radio transmitter. I am not now sure who was correct, but I lost sufficient points in that weekly quiz to force my attendance at night school for a week. One of the sergeants spent most of his year's training also attending night "dumb-dumb" school. Oddly enough, folks said that he was just fine on his Nike site later - the guy just had little scholastic aptitude.
After training, the operating people were divided into battalion or battery sized "packages" (commanding officers got to interview and help select their future soldiers).
From this distance in time (45 years later) I feel sorry for my battery commander. He had already selected two good IFC maintenance candidates (previous classes, and who had done light instructional duties about Ft. Bliss) and had to pick one more. I am sure that I, as an opinionated, argumentative, wild haired new graduate, was not his first round draft choice.
A classmate went into a different "package". This is his story.
The IFC personnel from each battery then practiced on actual Nike systems in "Radar Park" in Ft. Bliss for a few weeks. The instructors inserted many faults (bad tubes, open interlocks, defective cables, mis-adjusted adjustments, ... . It was really fun to put all that book learning to work!
Then each battery went to:
and fired (usually three) missiles at target drones or (later) simulated targets.
- (pre 1959 - Ajax missiles) Red Canyon Range Camp
- (post 1959 - Hercules missiles) McGregor Range (about 50 miles north of Ft. Bliss)
Our "package" was then sent to our new battery site in Chicago ( with, if I remember correctly, about two weeks travel time to allow travel to and visiting in home towns).
There are interesting oral histories of officers and men at Cold War at Fort Hancock.
The officers got:
- 15 weeks of officer basic course "The Officer Basic course was kind of an advanced "basic training" for 2nd lieutenants in Air Defense Artillery. We played officer games in the field (sand dunes of outer Ft. Bliss) and even fired one Nike Ajax missile as the finale for the class. The officers in the class assumed all of the positions in the battery and operated the system. My position was in the launcher area ..."
- 30 weeks advanced course - "more tactics and theory of operations"
New (Sept 2009) is Captain Philip Oswald commanding 1959-1962
The IFC technical people (warrant officers and enlisted) got about a year of training. This was divided into:
- 8 weeks of basic electronics, basic radio/radar, and trouble shooting theory
- 48 weeks of Nike specific theory, electronics, radar, adjustments, trouble shooting
We (IFC technical people) went over every page of the schematics carefully, and had lots of trouble shooting and adjustment practice. I felt (in 1955) quite satisfied - except:
- no training or experience in fighting enemy jamming
- we occasionally had to pull KP, and I could go though the schematics and identify those pages unlearned because of KP.
John R Braun e-mailed
- "I attended two schools back to back at Ft. Bliss from Feb. 1966 to April 1967 and never had to do ANY duties except attend school. They must have indeed, changed their duty roster policies between the time I attended and when you attended. I thought the training received and the instructor quality was excellent at Ft. Bliss. The school hours were grueling and the course subjects fast paced, but excellent. "
In August 2000, Donald Knollinger wrote:
- When I attended 226 school at Ft. Bliss... we pulled NO extra duties!!! I remember (fondly), our school battery commander addressing us on our first day... saying "you people are here to learn", "there will be no KP, guard duty, inspections, etc!!" This was in the early 60's.
At the conclusion of formal training, we were interviewed by battery commanders who were forming up people to install and operate new sites. There was an attempt to match people's desires of location with Army needs. Chicago was the closest available at the time to my home (Minnesota) and I requested that city. Captain Hill was going to Chicago, and (after he interviewed me) I was admitted to his "team" along with 2 other IFC mechanics and maybe 40 other people who had received training in various aspects of Nike operations. We started to work on the equipment for about 2 weeks as a unit.
After that we moved about 100 miles away to Red Canyon Missile range to fix/adjust their local radars (previously un-fixed and mis-adjusted to give us plenty of exercise) and fire a missile to shoot down a target called an RCAT. While there, a week to 10 days??, we lived in Red Canyon Range Camp, a tent village. The sheet metal mess hall was the most substantial building.
After a short leave, we gathered at the Chicago site which was in Jackson Park - 63rd South and Outer Drive. It was called "C-41". The buildings, launcher pits, roads, fences, radar pads, etc. were all ready for the new equipment which arrived in a few days. We installed and cabled up the new equipment and made it operational (in two weeks?). Then more people arrived to receive "on the job" training and fill the manning slots. And we were "ready".
Ron Loving said that later (1964) there were 4 week courses in Electronic Counter Measures. "The classes tried to teach you that what you saw on the scope could be countered by putting in standard "fixes" against the type of jamming represented on the scope. In reality, one could try individual "fixes" or mix and match the "fixes" until the scope cleared up or you went to "Track On Jam" (TOJ). I was never satisfied with the "School Solution" for jamming because it was not that close to reality."
The Launcher technical people got (???).
The operators got (? 2 weeks?). Did not seem much.
Ron Loving commanded both Nike and Hawk batteries. In response to the question "I am presuming the technical and fire decision challenges facing a Hawk officer are quite different from those facing a Nike officer???" Ron responded with "Officers in the two missile batteries faced the same challenges. That being the continual training of the crews, supplies (Logistics) and other daily operational procedures from motor pool inspection to care and feeding of the troops. The differences being in the operational procedures for the different batteries. During officer basic and advanced courses at Ft. Bliss all officers were trained the same. It was after they arrived at their new assignment that the missile specific training started. Both types of missiles were controlled the same way by the Air Force through the ADCAP early warning systems."
And of course, folks want to - play :-)) - My version in the 1954 era -
Fortunately, I usually had wheels :-))
El Paso is not widely regarded as a cultural center ;-)
- Library - I have always been a library freak - but I had to read there, "They" wouldn't issue me a library card - soldiers are too transient? do not contribute to taxes?, ???
- Museums - I wasn't a museum freak then - no clue
- Theater - One night an aging Russian named ballerina, maybe Tamara Karsavina toured through El Paso - The poor dear was literally on her last legs - she shook and wobbled as she danced. To my everlasting shame I said something like "Tamura has no tomorrow", loud enough for nearby folks to hear :-((
- Texas Western College - One guy had a girl friend there - he tried to "fix us up" with dates.
When I went to pick up my date at her home, her father took me aside and said "You soldiers should go across the border, and not bother American girls."
Most El Paso "American" girls regarded soldiers as not worth a hoot.
- Traffic court - One day I was driving down Pershing Drive in El Paso, similar to many times before. Just after I made the minor jog in the road some city cop pulled me over and said I made an illegal turn ???
A sympathetic judge let me go - I later read in the paper he was fired for not generating enough revenue for the city :-(((( !!!!
Ah - the famous and infamous - Juárez
- Bull Fights - My parents came to see me in Ft. Bliss - so we went to a bull fight - big stadium - big crowd -
One of the bull fighters an American woman - she yelled and shouted at her bull - seemed uncouth - uncool -
My father was really upset by the bull "fight". He had been a farm boy, and didn't like to see animals abused:
- you can kill them for food,
- but not torment them for play -
- Food and music - I'd stand outside the restaurants, rather expensive on a private's stipend - and listen to some of the most beautiful trumpet work in the world - Herb Alpert was of the breed.
- OK - You have waited long enough - Pig Alley
The watering hole and "meet your friends there" for seemingly most of Ft. Bliss enlisted people.
People have unnecessarily lurid visions of the combination of bars/cat-houses. While I was there, the word was out that the Chief of Police owned/controlled the area, and that he didn't tolerate any loud wild behavior. I never heard anyone shout in Pig Alley - indoors or out - and I must have gone there maybe 10 times - but I saved my money ;-))
- Inexpensive booze - I was into rum & coke (the liquid kind) at the time. Bacardi Rum for $1 a quart - smooth - . I left Ft. Bliss training with about 40 quarts stacked horizontally in my trunk - thought I was fixed for life. Heading north through Oklahoma I smelled that wonderful rum - OOPS - stopped the car - the trunk was swimming in rum. the bottles had (gotten hot? vibrated too much?) and most were mostly empty :-((
- Various married sergeants invited us single guys to their homes.
One red faced sergeant, who we didn't regard as a great catch, invited us - and introduced us to his wife, "the Burgermeister's daughter". She was a nice lady, evidently escaped from bad conditions in post war Germany and was taking good care of husband - wouldn't let him lend money to dead beats, a limited amount of beer on weekends - and other wise kept her guy out of trouble. :-)) Folks said that before he married her he was making a mess out of his army career.
- Biggs Field - Air Force at the time -
Home to SAC B-36 bombers. Huge !!! During classes we would hear those things seeming miles away, engines slighly de-synchronized, droning on forever. Before we arrived, some Air Force tower director steered a B-36 into Mt. Franklin - story was they only transfered him rather than ... .
While we were there (1954+) a big plane ?B-36? got into trouble landing, swerved to miss a populated area, and crashed horribly. The next day I drove to the site - sheet metal and char all over - only visible structures where the huge wheels :-(((
Did the Air Force haul the engines away? Looked for didn't see -
One day I decided to see how the Air Force lived - we had heard their lower ranks did not have to "pull KP" and were jealous. Getting pulled out of school to scrub pots and pans seemed like false economy to us. I drove onto Biggs air base very casually, drove about, and wondered when they would escort me out of there - I drove over by the B-36 bombers, parked briefly under one of their wings (HUGE) then got bored and left. How is that for a tale? I'm sure I wasn't dreaming - REALLY should have had a camera !!!
- One Sunday, 4 of us decided to climb Mt. Franklin, just to the west of El Paso, Ft. Bliss.
A possible route is in white on a the picture of Ft. Bliss, above.
How grossly unprepared !! - we each carried a canteen of water and a sandwich, and headed up the mountain. Some where about half way up, we had consumed all our water and food, but we pressed onward and upward. Right now I can't tell you if we made the top, but I can tell you we were totally miserable coming down - we saw some trees in the valley this side of mountains to the north - and headed there - very desperate for water.
We finally stagger into the tree area - there are lots of "Mexicans" there with their families. We hobble over to the nearest group in that lovely shade and offer to buy water - I think we would have traded our clothing and shoes for water.
The "Mexicans" said - No - free - enjoy - OH - did we drink water, eat watermelons, and even drink a little beer !!
I've had a real soft spot in my heart for "Mexicans" ever since !!
I think most of them know how to live better than most of us money grabbing Gringos !!
- Carlsbad, New Mexico - Caverns and Girls
Somehow someone knew a girl in Carlsbad, New Mexico - soon 4 of us were spending every other weekend driving the 120 miles to Carlsbad. One of us had suitable car (mine was OK about town) - and we usually made the over the desert 120 miles in about an hour - occasionally less :-|
In spite of the above speed, there was no hankipank. Our regular dates were serious about church rules and the guys ?shy??tolerant??too-young-to-get-serious?? - hard to believe -
We even stayed in motels - chaste - lots of adventures but chaste - unbelievable - Later, a year after we got to Chicago, Tommy Manno married his girl -
Updated through Oct 5, 2013