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BRL 1961, TARGET INTERCEPT, start page 0866


Target Intercept Computer (TIC) MANUFACTURER Remington Rand Univac Division Sperry Rand Corporation
Photo by Remington Rand Univac APPLICATIONS System is used for Missile guidance in real time (on-line), system simulation, data processing, and automatic coding (Autocode). PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 24 Binary digits/instruction 24 Instructions/word 1 Instructions decoded 35 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range -1 <= X <= 1 and, in R Memory 0 <= X <= 214 (integer addresses) Instruction word format +---------+----------+--------------+--------+ | Op Code | j Factor | Operand | Parity | +---------+----------+--------------+--------+ | 0 5 | 6 9 | 10 23 | 24 | +---------+----------+--------------+--------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------+ | Shift Instruction | +-----------+----------+-------+---------+------+-------+--------+ | Operation | J | Not | Shift | Not | Shift | Parity | | Code | Factor | Used | Control | Used | Count | | +-----------+----------+-------+---------+------+-------+--------+ | 0 5 | 6 9 | 10 11 | 12 17 | 18 | 19 23 | 24 | +-----------+----------+-------+---------+------+-------+--------+ Automatic built-in subroutines include error checking, system diagnosis, and program sequence control. Automatic coding includes special Autocode programs. Registers includes fifteen 15-bit registers, referenced by j factor. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 10 5 Mult 25 20 Div 45 40 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 6,200 (approx) includes Arithmetic Sequence Control
BRL 1961, TARGET INTERCEPT, start page 0867
Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Operation Concurrent An overlapping instruction repertoire, plus the ability to simultaneously. execute arithmetic and non-aritbmetic sequences, causes certain operations in the computer to be concurrent. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits Microsec Permanent (Z) Memory 10,240 25 2.8 Variable (0) Memory 2,048 25 2.2 Reference (R) Memory 15 14 0.9 Real-Time (Z) Memory 48 25 2.8 Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 5 Units go. of chars/linear inch of tape 200 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 7 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 3/4 Inches Tape speed 150 Inches/sec Transfer rate 30,000 Chars/sec Start time 3.9 Millisec Stop time 0.7 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 15-30 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 0.5 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition 1.5 mil mylar, polyester backing INPUT Media Speed Flexowriter, Model F1 8 chars/sec Automatic Typewriter Ampex FR 307 30 KC Magnetic Tape Units 81x alphanumerics is equivalent to 1 character. Flexowriter and Ampex units are specially adapted. OUTPUT Media Speed Flexowriter, Model F1 8 chars/sec Automatic Typewriter Ampex FR 307 30 KC Magnetic Tape Units CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 1,344 1N98 1N2146 Transistors 2N559 20,000 Magnetic Cores General Ceramics 500-A 37, 584 All words and parity in the Permanent (Z) Memory (256,000 digit locations) are stored in alnico magnets that are imbedded in Special Program cards. CHECKING FEATURES Program indicates and analyzes all detectable errors. Parity checking on data transfers, address transfers, and word locations. Also checked on overflows, critical commands, timing, program sequences, input/output and operator errors. Routines for extensive exercising and checking can be run at the discretion of the operator. POWER. SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 2.5 Kw 2.5 KVA 1 Pf Volume, computer 210 cu ft Area, computer 69.5 sq ft Room size 36 ft x 10.5 ft minimum Floor loading 150 lbs/sq ft Weight, computer 5,200 lbs Installation must meet all normal requirements of cleanliness; a normal working environment is satisfactory for the computers; i.e. its operating range is between 60o and 100oF (16-38oC). Airconditioning is provided, though not essential; forced-air cooling is the minimun requirement. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 Number in current production 1 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Written publications on description, theory, operation, and maintenance; orientation courses conducted by training department; staff of Field Service Personnel maintain computer at site. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY System features and construction techniques utilized by manufacturer to insure required reliability include: Computer isolates and indicates its own failures Error routine locates failed modules Failures indicated visually Non-redundancy of hardware Module layout by computer function Hardware detection of errors Program interpretation of and recovery from errors Permanent storage of critical instructions and constants. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include permanent storage of critical instructions and. constants, overlapped instruction repertoire, automatic start of next program, interrupt control of scattering and gathering of data, and non-stop transfer of control an errors. INSTALLATIONS Remington Rand Univac Univac Park St. Paul 16, Minnesota


Teleregister Magnetronic Bid-Asked Stock Quotation System MANUFACTURER The Teleregister Corporation APPLICATIONS Data processing associated with stock exchange bid- asked price quotations PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Binary digits per word 24 ARITHMETIC UNIT Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential Five seconds of additional time are required for a transaction when input/output data are transmitted over teletype lines. STORAGE A single magnetic drum storage unit is utilized. The drum capacity is 100,000 binary digits. The system is designed to handle a maximum of 8 million average transactions/hour. Relays are used for temporary storage of information. INPUT There are 200 special input/output devices located in Toronto, Canada. These are located near the printing mechanisms. For remote locations, special transceivers are utilized to serialize and check data. OUTPUT Visual verification of input/output data (response) is possible at the originating input point. Input error or data rejection is immediately signalled to the originating input device. Automatic checking and data verification controls are built into the system. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Cost was dependent upon customeer requirements. System was installed but is not being maintained by the manufacturer. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE. AND TIME AVAILABILITY Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.999 The system is operated on line 7 hours/day, 5 days week. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Special purpose system. System is operated "on line" with current updating features. Status reporting feature included. Control is possible from all input transactions recording locations. System incorporates remote control of the data processor from input/output stations. The following is a technical, operational and historical description of the system: The electronic equipment at the Toronto Stock Exchange represents the first use of electronic digital computer techniques for the storage and dissemination of stock quotations. In 1937 The Teleregister Corporation installed for the Totonto Exchange an automatic, electro-mechanical system for displaying, storing and disseminating bid-asked prices on the more actively traded stocks. Bid-asked prices, generated at the trading posts on the floor of the Exchange from orders placed on the outside, were transmitted by reporters over an interphone system to keyset operators in the basement of the Exchange building. These keyset operators entered the bid-asked prices into the automatic system. The prices were displayed on electromechanical indicator units located at the posts on the floor for the information of the traders at that location. Simultaneously, the same prices were posted on indicators in a "check-board" located in front of the keyset operators. The system also included a Canadian National Telegraphs network from the common equipment at the Exchange to broker' offices in the Toronto area, who were provided with dial- ticker units. A broker desiring the current bid-asked prices for a particular stock, looked up the three digit code number for the stock in a code-assignment register. When he was ready to dial, he pressed a request button on
his dial set. The operation of this button connected his dialing circuit arid ticker liner through the line connecting equipment, to one of 24 transmitters which may be idle at the time. When the connection to the transmitter was completed, a ready lamp lighted on the broker's dial set, telling him that the equipment was ready to receive his dialing. The operation thus far is similar to that of a telephone exchange when the subscriber picks up the hand set sad receives a dial tone. The dialed code numbers were stored in the transmitter, which was conditioned to extract the requested bid-asked price from the system's memory. Up until several years ago the display indicators in the check board served a dual purpose in that they were also used as storage devices or memory units. These indicators were pulse actuated mechanisms which display the digits 1 through 0 and blank, on a 11-position rotatable drum. An indicator was set to display the desired digit by transmitting counted pulses to its winding after it has first been pulsed to its blank display position. In order to respond to a broker's dialed request, the indicators displaying the selected stock prices were actuated by exactly 11 pulses. This would leave the indicators in the same display position as before, but since it was possible to determine the number of pulses required to move each unit from its display position to its blank position, a coded readout of the stored prices was accomplished. These prices were then automatically sent by one of the 24 transmitters to a ticker at the calling broker's office. After careful engineering analysis of the problem, it was decided to use electronic techniques and a non-volatile magnetic drum storage to process the 50,000 daily requests which were being received from broker's offices. Since the existing display posting system represented a major capital investment, it was necessary to integrate much of the old electro-mechanical system with the new electronic data processing equipment. This integration presented the major engineering problem, since the electronic components had already been developed and proven in service in an American Airlines reservation system, which processes an inventory of airlines seats in place of stock bid- asked prices. It was also decided to use the old price storage circuitry as a fall-back, so that a manual switch-over system had to be provided. The magnetic drum storage equipment is time shared between the 24 transmitters and the 6 operators positions by the seeker equipment. The purpose of the operators' positions is to keep the prices displayed at the Exchange and stored on the magnetic drum up to date with the trading. The seeker is a relay switching device which connects the next transmitter or operator's position awaiting access to the drum storage, which is time- shared to all positions. When a transmitter gets access to the storage, the 3-digit code number, dialed by a subscriber and stored in the transmitter, is translated by the selector into the energization of one of 600 single-wire selection leads which were previously used to connect the transmitters to a specific section of the check-board display when that unit was used as the system's memory. In the new system these 600 leads are coded by use of a diode matrix with the position code of the same information on the magnetic drum storage. The output of the diode matrix is connected through drum selection coding relays to the drum connecting relays which, in turn, select one of 40 channels on the drum. If one of the six operators' positions has been given access to the storage drum, the electronic equipment is used to write the new price information stored on the operators' keyset in the section of the drum selected by one of 100 keys on the. operators' keyset. The magnetic storage unit consists of a solid aluminum billet, eight inches in diameter and fifteen inches high, coated with an iron oxide film about 0.003 inches thick. The drum has capacity for storing approximately two thousand sets of prices, six hundred being the initial usage. Prices are stared in permutation code on the drum coating as positively or negatively magnetized spots,.the coding being changed as the prices alter. The drum is divided into circumferential tracks, or channels, each channel providing price storage for twenty-five! stocks. The packing factor for this a ication is approximately 40 bits (or code elements) per inch along the track. A read-record head is mounted over each channel with a clearance of .001 inch from the drum surface. In recording, these beads polarize the magnetic coating as the drum rotates at a speed of 1,450 RPM beneath them, under control of electronic writing and gating circuits which are triggered off as the operators send in new prices. In a reading operation resulting from a broker's dialed request, the selected magnetized spots passing under the read-record head induce positive and negative pulses which are amplified and shaped into usable dynamic pulses. The electronic equipment is under control of a program unit which is basically divided into seven circuits; starting, function determination, counting, 1 of 25 stock selection, 1 of 6 stock digit selection, read gating and write gating. Counting is in binary code and under control of three permanently magnetized tracks on the drum which are called synchronizing or "clock" tracks. These tracks deliver 1,256 and 600 pulses, respectively, for each revolution of the drum. The clock pulses to the electronic counters of the program unit open electronic gates at the precise instant that the desired storage area on the drum is passing beneath the selected read-record head. There is a reference pulse from the drum which assures that the electronic counting will always start in synchronism with the drum rotation. There are pulses which are used to select one or a combination of the six digits representing a bid-asked price. Since each price digit has a 4 element permutation code, there are 25 x 6 x 4, or a total of 600 storage bits in use on each drum track. The function of the shift registers is to read the amplified serial bid-asked price pulses from the drum and send the price in parallel to the transmitters, 24 elements at a time. In the case of a write operation, the shift registers control serial writing into the drum from parallel price code inputs from the operators' keysets. The electronic equipment contains approximately 400 tubes envelopes, of which about half are Western Electric 396-A twin triodes and the remainder Western Electric 415-A pentodes. A few 6Y6 tubes are used in the drum record circuits. All electronic components are mounted on functional plug-in sub-assemblies, using printed wiring techniques. An open construction is employed for better heat dissipation and lower operating temperature. INSTALLATIONS Toronto Stock Exchange Toronto, Canada



Magnetronic Inventory Control System MANUFACTURER The Teleregister Corporation APPLICATIONS Industrial inventory control B. F. Goodrich Company, Footwear and Flooring Division Finished goods inventory control PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Binary digits per word 37 ARITHMETIC UNIT Construction Vacuum tubes Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential The time required for the completion of an average transaction from the completion of the input to the answer is 600 milliseconds. The system has a de- signed maximum capability of handling 6,000,000 average transactions per hour. The operator has one master control panel for his use. A sub-supervisory control position is located at the data processor. STORAGE A single 1,500,000 binary digit capacity magnetic drum is utilized. The number of bits per standard item stored is 37 (comparable to a "word" in general purpose systems). Random access to the drum is possible. The temporary storage medium is relays. INPUT One input/output device is located at the data processor. One input/output device is located at the print- ing mechanism. Paper tape is utilized as an input/output medium. Electric office machines are controlled and driven by the system. Punched cards are utilized. B. F. Goodrich Company, Flltwear and Flooring Division Tape reader speed is 10 char/sec and tape punch speed is 20 char/sec. A digital display unit is utilized. OUTPUT Visual verication of input/output data (response) is possible at the supervisory station. Input error data rejection is signalled immediate- ly at the supervisory station. Automatic checking and data verification controls are built into the system. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Prices of this special purpose system are based on customer requirements and are established by negotiation. System is installed and is maintained by the manufacturer on a service contract basis. B. F. Goodrich Company, Footwear and Flooring Division Approximate cost of basic system was $300,000. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS B. F. Goodrich Company, Footwear and Flooring Division Daily Operation One 8-Hour Shift Engineers 1 Technicians & Operators 3 RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY System is installed, operating, and in use. It is operated for 8 hours/day on line and 2 hours/day off line, on a 5 day/week basis. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Special purpose system. System is operated partially on an on-line basis. System has combined on-line and off-line operating features. The supervisory station permits stock status re- ports to be obtained, utilizing "tailored" function- al input/output devices for completing transactions.
B. F. Goodrich Company, Footwear and Flooring Division This piece of equipment is of a special purpose nature designed specifically in answer to our finished goods footwear problem. Its outstanding feature is random access to any one of many thousands of separate items of either inventory or sales. An additional feature is the display of inventory or orders on a digital display console, one item at a time. FUTURE PLANS B. F. Goodrich Company, Footwear and Flooring Division The future expansion of this system depends largely upon its current performance on the ,job for which it was built. Integration of our branch warehouse will be the next possible application. INSTALLATIONS B. F. Goodrich Footwear and Flooring Company Division of the B. F. Goodrich Company Watertown 72, Massachusetts

BRL 1961, TELEREGISTER TELEFILE, start page 0872


Teleregister Telefile Data Processing System MANUFACTURER The Teleregister Corporation Control Console of Telefile Data Processor
Photo by The Teleregister Corporation APPLICATIONS Manufacturer System is performing the following applications: Ranking Systems - On line - Real Time Airlines Reservations - On line - Real Time Communications switching On-line Real Time Off-line General Purpose Data Processing Passenger Record Retrieval - Real Time These systems are constructed to operate on-line with nation-wide data communications networks con- sisting of high speed (1000 bit/sec) and low speed (75 bit/sec) facilities. The switching, terminating and transceiver apparatus to equip these networks are provided by the manufacturer. Society for Savings Savings accounting and mortgage accounting.
BRL 1961, TELEREGISTER TELEFILE, start page 0873
Special Window Machine for Telefile On-line Photo by The Teleregister Corporation Savings Bank Accounting System PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Coded Decimal Decimal digits/word one Decimal digits/instruction 8 Instructions per word Digit. Addressable Instructions decoded Over 200, depending on system Arithmetic system Fixed point Variable length fields up to 100 digits. Instruction type One address Sequential; first four digits can be considered an instruction Number range 100 - 1099 absolute magnitude Instruction word format +-------+-----------------+----------------+ | 1 2 | 3 4 | 5 8 | +-------+-----------------+----------------+ | Order | Length of Field | Memory Address | +-------+-----------------+----------------+ Automatic built-in subroutines include Automatic Rerun in the event of certain failures and programmable separation of dual system. Registers include the-Accumulator Control (ACR), Memory Control (NCR), Instruction Control (ICR) and Quotient Control (QCR) registers. All orders are performed by defining field lengths in the core memory. The addressable classification is digits. Instructions can be performed on from one to a hundred digits per operand. ARITHMETIC UNIT Operation Including Storage Access Time Time Microseconds Add 160 + 16 (No. of augend + addend digits) Mult 80 + 16 (Sum of product digits)(3 x No. of Multiplier + Multiplicand digits) Div 80 + 16 (Sum of quotient digits)(No. of digits in dividend) Excluding Storage Access Time Microseconds Add 80 + 16 (No. of augend + addend digits) Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Unit consists of transistors, diodes and modular packages. Arithmetic mode Serial by digit, parallel by bit. Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential
BRL 1961, TELEREGISTER TELEFILE, start page 0874
Agent Set is Special Input-Output Device for use with the Telefile On-line Reservations System for United Airlines Photo by The Teleregister Corporation STORAGE Access Media Dec Digits Microsec Magnetic Cores 15,000 16 Magnetic Drums 1,050,000/drum 17,000 Discs 15,000,000/assembly 100,000 Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 54 Units No. of chars/linear inch of tape 200 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 6 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 1/2 Inches Tape speed 150 Inches/sec Transfer rate 12,000 Chars/sec Start time 5 Millisec Stop time 5 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 15 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 1/2 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Mylar sandwich INPUT OUTPUT Teleregister systems are primarily on-line rapid access business computing systems. Up to 29 sub- systems can be connected to any single main frame. The system can consist of any number of processors each acting independently or with any two processors corss checking each other. The systems have been designed to accommodate any conventional input-out- put media.
BRL 1961, TELEREGISTER TELEFILE, start page 0875
CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 15,500 Transistors 3,500 Magnetic Cores 50,000 - 75,000 Above applies to a single Central Data Processor (TELEFILE). Similar proportion of diodes and transistors applies to other sub-systems. CHECKING FEATURES System has parity checking in and out of the core memory and in and out of any subsystem. Duality corss checks are available between processors and/or drums. Checks may also be programmed. COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Prices are available on request. Teleregister has a full scale field-service operation in more than 100 cities in U. S., servicing all installations. This service organization has been in existence for 30 years. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Personnel requirements vary with the complexity of any given system application. Teleregister trains customer personnel at Stamford plant and provides on-site training as long as required. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Teleregister on-line systems have been operating with a record of 99.8% up-time since 1952. They employ duality and built-in controls to maintain this high degree of reliability, coupled with a rigid preventive maintenance program. They have proven on-line capability for 22 hour per day, 7 day per week service. INSTALLATIONS Society for Savings 31 Pratt Street Hartford 1, Connecticut The Howard Savings Institution Newark 1, New Jersey


Teleregister Unified Airline Processor MANUFACTURER The Teleregister Corporation Typical Teleregister Unified Airline Data Process- ing Center
Photo by The Teleregister Corporation APPLICATIONS Special purpose, on-line, real-time wired program data processor, designed for inventory applications with a high volume of random, undisciplined, ondemand inquiries and transactions. Approximately 12,000 such transactions can be processed in one hour. The term "Unified" stems from the unification Of design requirements which enabled Teleregister to provide similar systems now in use by TWA, Western, National and Northeast Air Lines. These systems permit the airlines to process requests for reservations very quickly, and have measurably improved load factors and customer relations. A Unified system also handles hotel reservations for the Sheraton Corporation. Forerunners of the Unified Systems were Teleregister's Magnetronic Reservisors which have been serving American Airlines since 1952, and a similar system used by Braniff International Airways since 1957. Pan American World Airways and United Air Lines also use Teleregister systems, and United has ordered a new one (see TELEREGISTER TELEFIIE) for installation in the next few months. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary All logic and programs are wired into the processors by Teleregister. Additional programs and changes in logic are made by the manufacturer on a charge basis at the customer's request. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 17,010 10 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Vacuum-tubes and relays Arithmetic mode Parallel
Supervisor's console of the TWA Teleregister data processor in the West Side Airlines Terminal, New York. TWA has three of the Teleregister Unified systems with data processors at New York, Chicago and Los Angeles Photo by The Teleregister Corporation Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE No. of Binary Access Medium Digits/Drum Microsec Magnetic Drums 1,300,000 17,000
Teleregister Distant Central Office Transceiver (DCOT) at West Side Airlines Terminal. is the automatic data message director through which all agent set traffic is channeled to and from the TWA Unified data processor at New York Photo by The Teleregister Corporation INPUT Media Keysets Parallel input Punched Tape 200 words/min Teletype 200 words/min Media OUTPUT Keysets Parallel output Punched Tape 200 words/min Teletype 200 words/min Printer 100 words/min The principal input/output device used with the Teleregister Unified Airline Processor is the special purpose agent's keyset. To make an inquiry or initiate an inventory transaction, the agent selects and inserts a patented code plate in a slot in the agent set. The plate lists a total of 64 flights or segments thereof, but only a single row listing eight flights is visible at the time. On an availability inquiry the processor reply causes a display on the agent set by eight lamps associated with the eight flights listed on the code plate. Four conditions can be shown for each flight, such as lamp on - "open for sale", lamp out - "flight closed", fast flash "wait list open", and slow flash - "special, check further". Keys on the agent set are used to designate month, date, and number of persons in the party, and one of ten command keys is used to initiate the call.. Besides availability inquiries and sell and cancel transactions, the command keys include requests for departing a arriving flight information and the print out at the processor location of wait list requests. There are approximately 800 keysets of the unified type, shown in the photograph, in use. They are compatible with the 600 keysets of the earlier "Reservisor" type. Human engineering principles contributed to the design to give accuracy and speed in use. The code
TWA ticket agent using a Teleregister agent set to check availability for customer. Over 1000 similar agent sets are in operation for 8 major airlines. Photo by The Teleregister Corporation plate eliminates the keying in of flight numbers and gives a positive reference for all replies. The set is rugged and compact. The processors include a teletype message editor, which scans incoming messages for data on seats sold or canceled. When the editor finds a transaction affecting inventory, it bids for the processor and passes on the data so that inventory is updated. Similarly, when variable inventory control levels are reached, teletype status messages are automatically generated and transmitted to the interested stations. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Tubes 4,500 Diodes 3,000 Quantities dual processors and teletype translator at central location. CHECKING FEATURES Checking features include checks on magnetic drum recording and checks input data codes. Read back check on translation is optional. Also two processors are supplied with each system. They operate in "dual" mode, meaning that they operate simultaneously on the same problem, and cross check each other. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Volume, System 6,400 cu ft Area, System 800 sq ft Room size 1,000 sq ft including benches and cabinets Floor loading 75 lbs/sq ft Figures are for central equipment, including two processors .and typical communications equipment. A11 interconnections between processor units are made through overhead ducts. A false ceiling may be used if desired. Air conditioner is supplied by customer.
PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 12 Number in current operation 12 Anticipated production rates Two per year Time required for delivery 18 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Price varies with the number of modules required by the application. Attended maintenance for one, two, or three shifts is included in the service contract. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One programmer is required. Training made available by the manufacturer to the user includes training of an initial group in the operation of the agents key set and in the entering of basic data into the processor. The logic and programs are wired in, therefore the only personnel required for operation, besides the reservation agents, is some one to assign inventory locations to flights and to enter the data that varies with schedule changes. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY System up-time has averaged 99.8%. This degree of reliability, necessary for a on-line, on demand system, is achieved by using dual processors. In the event of an error detected by cross-checking between processors, a test routine is initiated, and if one of the processors is faulty, it is cut out and the other processor carries the load until repair has been accomplished. Many components, such as seekers and communications terminating equipment, are furnished in duplicate for fallback. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS The outstanding feature of the Unified Airline Processor is its ability to handle inputs from several hundred remote devices on a random demand basis. Since it is a real-time system, it makes accessible to hundreds of agents current information on seats available, returning cancelled space to inventory immediately. Reports on inventory, seats sold, status of flights, etc. can be printed out. A Unified Airline Data Processing System almost always includes communications equipment so that input/output sets may be located at any distance from the central equipment. Agent sets for Teleregister airline systems are located in more than 100 cities in the United States and Canada. For the Unified System, 75 or 100 words per minute telegraph circuits, leased by the customer, are used. Several drops can be located on one circuit through a speedy roll-call feature. Vertical parity checking is used to detect communication errors.

BRL 1961, TRICE, start page 0882


Packard Bell Transistorized Real Time Incremental Computer Expandable MANUFACTURER Packard Bell Computer Corporation
Photo by Packard Bell Computer Corporation APPLICATIONS The TRICE is a digital differential analyzer capable of solving directly any equations capable of being expressed in differential form at real time speeds. The TRICE may operate independently in the solution of these equations or it may be used with actual hardware or analog computers to perform real time simulation or test. The standard console can be supplied with up to 108 computing modules. Connection to additional consoles is provided for. The TRICE consists of independent computing modules which, perform the operation of integration, summation and multiplication. These modules are interconnected by means of a removable patch panel to solve differential equations. The TRICE achieves real time speeds by means of a 3 Me clock frequency and parallel organization. All computing elements operate simultaneously. The iteration rate of the TRICE is 100 KC. This is 1,000 times faster than any previous DDA. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits per word 26 bits plus sign max. Arithetic system Fixed point Incremental, ternary transfer (existence and sign Programmed interconnection of independent computing modules The TRICE has the following types of independent computing modules: Integrator [delta] Y Super Constant Multiplier Servo Variable Multiplier Decision Servo The TRICE is programmed much the same as an analog computer. The computing modules are connected directly to perform the operations indicated in the equations. This provides a "feel" for the problem and permits very rapid programming. The results of
BRL 1961, TRICE, start page 0883
a change in a problem parameter by the operator can be observed immediately in the form of X-Y plots, time history recordings, or digital readout. Thus the TRICE can be used as a design tool. ARITHMETIC UNIT Up to 100,000 iterations per second for all operations, including addition, multiplication and division. An integrator uses 110 transistors. Arithmetic mode Serial Incremental, ternary transfer Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential and concurrent Integration can be performed with respect to any variable. The TRICE is not limited to integration with respect to time. STORAGE Access Medium No. of Words No. of Digits Microsec Delay Line 1 word/module 26 bits + sign 10 (Electromagnetic) A patch panel is used for "storage" of the program. INPUT Media Speed Keyboard Manual Either octal or decimal entry is possible. Paper Tape 60 char/sec A 108 module machine can be loaded in 30 sec. A to D Converters Incremental up to 100 KC Packard Bell Model M-1 standard equipment. Voltage input is from transducers, etc. OUTPUT Media Speed Registers (Octal or Decimal) Updated at 100 KC rate Visual readout of digital information in computing registers Paper Tape 60 char/sec Automatic on time basis or at maxima or minima, etc. D/A ConvertersIncremental up to 100 KC Voltage output to X -Y plotters, servo inputs, etc. PB Model DA-3 standard The TRICE has a Decimal to Binary - Binary to Decimal converter Scaler which converts to binary and automatically scales decimal information for entry into the machine. The same converter also converts the binary information to decimal for output. An off line automatic typewriter is used to prepare and read the paper tape. Tape can also be prepared from the control panel keyboard. Any number of analog input and outputs may be handled, through A to D and D to A converters. These inputs and outputs may be from hardware under test or an analog computer. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Tubes l/module Diodes 400/module Transistors 110/module Above figures are approximate. The tubes are Amperex indicators for overflow indication. These are the only tubes used in the machine. They are miniature CRT's used for register and overflow indicators. The TRICE is constructed entirely of solid-state components. The TRICE has been in existence for over two years to date, and has proven to be extremely reliable with very little down time. Low power consumption and freedom from heating problems provide a long operating life. All components are derated by at least 50%. CHECKING FEATURES Checking features include automatic halt on overflow. Overflow indicator provided for each module. Digital operation permits a digit-by-digit check against previous runs or against check solutions run of a general purpose computer. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION KVA, computer 1 to 2 KVA Volume, computer 70 to 108 cu ft Area, computer 19 to 2'( sq ft PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 5 Number in-current operation 4 Number in current production 1 Number on order 1 Anticipated production rates 3/year Time required for delivery 6 Months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Approximate Cost of Component Console (Control Unit & Patch Bay) $ 23,000 Integrator (Mar. of 65/console) 2,800 ea Decision Servo (Mar. of 12/console) 2,500 ea Constant Multipliers (Max. of 30/ 2,000 ea console) Variable Multipliers (Mar. of 6/console) 4,000 ea Delta Y Summers 4 each 2,500 ea Additional EquipmentCost of Equipment Paper Tape Input $ 8,000 Paper Tape Output 6,000 Binary Decimal Converter & Scales 10,000 A-D Converters (M-1) 10,000 1 DA-3 in M-1 case 2,500 3 DA-3 in separate case 10,500 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One operator is required for each 8-hour shift. Formal training is not required. After reading the programming manual several hours of familiarization with the machine enables anyone with a knowledge of differential equations to program and operate the machine. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS A 3 Mc clack plus parallel organization of independent computing modules provide computation at real time speeds formerly ascribed to analog computers but with an order of magnitude greater accuracy and exact repeatability. Any number of analog channels in and out may be connected to operate with hardware or analog computers at an effective sampling rate of 100 KC/channel. A Digital/Analog Function Table (DAFT), a digital system for the generation of arbitrary or analytical functions for analog and digital computers, is available. The DAFT is incremental and completely compatible with the TRICE.

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