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BRL 1961, WESTINGHOUSE AIRBORNE, start page 1012


Westinghouse Airborne Digital Data Processor MANUFACTURER Air Arm Division Westinghouse Electric Corporation Operand Memory
Photo by Westinghouse Electric Corporation APPLICATIONS System is used to process radar data, generate synthetic displays, and direct antenna. The computer is used also to conduct built in system tests, per- form diagnostic tests of the Data Processor itself and generate calibration displays. The Westinghouse Airborne Digital Data Processor is a problem oriented general purpose digital compu- ter developed by Westinghouse for the Bureau of Aeronautics. Problem orientation of the Data Pro- cessor stems from its function as a sub-system of a radar processing system with multiple target hand- ling capability. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 24 Binary digits/instruction 21 Instructions/word One (two instruction words per memory line) Instructions decoded 4096 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range - 1 < n < +1 Instruction word format +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |21|20|19|18|17|16|15|14|13|12|11|10| 9| 8| 7| 6| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | Inst. Field |Index| Address Field | +--------------+-----+-----------------------------------------+ Field Designation for Instruction Word
BRL 1961, WESTINGHOUSE AIRBORNE, start page 1013
Power Supply Photo by Westinghouse Electric Corporation Registers and B-boxes Accumulator X-Register Q-Register 3 Index Registers M-Register IS-Register Stored Data Processing program consists of many sub- routines. Data-constant words are expressed in a complement form. Operand words are stored two words per operand memory line. Programmer has choice of left or right word, left or right half of left word, or left or right half of right word. These choices provide for maximum use of data locations. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access Microsec Microsec Add 3 1.4 Mult 20 20 Div 40 40 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 2,600 Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE No. of Access Media No. of Words Dig/Words Microsec Magnetic Core 4096 Inst Words 21 0.2 Magnetic Core 1024 Oper Words 24 0.8 Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 1 Unit No. of characters/linear inch200 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 7 Tracks/tape Tape speed 75 Inches/sec Start time 3 Millisec Stop time 3 Millisec Physical properties of tape Width 0.5 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Mylar Selected data recorded on tape compatible with IBM 727 tape unit. Provides checking feature for processed data.
BRL 1961, WESTINGHOUSE AIRBORNE, start page 1014
Input Unit Photo by Westinghouse Electric Corporation INPUT Media Speed Hi-speed Block 3 microsec/data word Transfer Voltage to Digital 75 microsec 0.1% Resolution Sense Inputs 3 microsec Special input unit designed to receive information from radar and present it to Data Processing units. OUTPUT Media Speed Hi-speed Block Transfer 3 microsec/data word Digital to D-C Voltages 15 microsec read-out 0.1% Resolution Digital to A-C Voltages 9 microsec read-out 0.2% Resolution Special output unit designed to receive data from the arithmetic/control unit, decode data, output to the antenna director, display of tracked targets on console, and output to tape unit. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 15,985 Transistors 7,597 Magnetic Cores 113,600 Gating systems operate on DC levels with approximately 10 millimicroseconds of delay per stage. Multi-aperture core Instruction Memory with NonDestructive Read-out. CHECKING FEATURES Internally Programmed Self Test Arithmetic/control monitor capable of testing and holding the contents of a particular register at any prescribed time. Readily accessible test points permit rapid trouble shooting without removing cards or units from mounting structure.
BRL 1961, WESTINGHOUSE AIRBORNE, start page 1015
Arithmetic/Control Unit Photo by Westinghouse Electric Corporation POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT,AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer and power 1.8 Kw 1.8 KVA 1.0 pf Volume, computer 6.5 cu ft Area, computerDependent on mounting application Weight, computer 250 lbs Data Processor is designed for airborne use. Mounting structure depends on space available. Cool- ing required is a blower with a capacity of 200 cfm at max amb temperature 38oC min air density .052 lbs/ft2. System requires 115v, 400 cycle, 3-phase, 600 watts/phase, or 28v D. C. 3 wire. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 2 Number in current operation 2 Current operating models are prototype. RELIABILITY. OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY System features and construction techniques utilized by the manufacturer to insure required reliability include selected standard parts proven long life items with extensive life testing operations, electrical components derated to operate at 200 of nominal voltages and power ratings, and circuits designed to accomodate wide swings in component parameters. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include Hi speed (300,000 operations/sec) in a ruggedized, small package, high reliability, and general purpose command repertoire with three Index Registers. Unique system advantages include Non-Destructive Instruction Store with 1 microsecond memory cycle time, and split word storage, allowing programmer a choice of a 24 bit whole word or a 12 bit half word. INSTALLATIONS Westinghouse Electric Corporation Air Arm Division Avionics Systems Section (454) Box 746 Baltimore 3, Maryland
BRL 1961, WHIRLWIND II, start page 1016


The Whirlwind Computer MANUFACTURER Massachusetts Institute of Technology Digital Computer Laboratory
Photo by Massachusetts Institute of Technology APPLICATIONS Manufacturer Scientific and engineering computation. The research reported in this computing system description was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. Air defense experiments leading to development of the SAGE System. The Whirlwind I Computer was declared excess to the needs of the M. I. T. Lincoln Laboratory in the spring of 1959. Subsequently, the computer was leased by the Office of Naval Research to the Wolf Research and Development Corporation, Boston, Mass. The Wolf Research and Development Corporation then undertook the disconnecting and moving of the computer from the M. I. T. Barta Building. This move which commenced about 1 January 1960 was successfully completed by 1 May 1960. The computer is presently stored in a Navy warehouse and it is planned to move the machine and make it operational at a new site during early 1961. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 16 Binary digits/instruction 16 Instructions/word 1 Instructions decoded 32 Instructions used 29 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range 2-15 - 1 to 1 - 2-15 Instruction word format +--------------+--------------------------------+ | Operation | Address | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | 0| | | | 4| 5| | | | | | | | | |15| +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ The basic operation code has been supplemented by a comprehensive system of service routines, providing for direct read-in of Flexowriter-coded perforated paper tapes, the logging of each problem on film and paper tape for subsequent processing, assembly during read-in of a suitable set of instructions including interpretive programmed-arithmetic (optional floating
BRL 1961, WHIRLWIND II, start page 1017
Photo by Wolf Research & Development Corporation point), up to several hundred cycle counters (B-boxes), output routines, error detection, and automatic post mortems. Routines are normally coded with mnemonic operations, symbolic addresses, relative addresses, program preset parameters, special psuedo-codes, and special control words. The service routines are stored on magnetic tape and are selected automatically during read-in. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 22 8 Mult 34-41 23.5 Div 71 57 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Type Quantity 6145 517 7AK7 441 6SN7 96 3E29 14 6Y6 51 Basic pulse repetition rate 1 Megacycle/sec Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Operation Concurrent STORAGE Access Media Microsec Magnetic Core 6,144 7 Two Magnetic Drums 36,848 8,300 Five Magnetic Tapes 125,000/tape Toggle Switch 32 1 Flip-flop 5 1 A word consists of 16 digits plus a parity digit. Read-rewrite time is 7 microseconds. Drum access time is average value. Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 4 Units No. of words/linear inch of tape 13 Words/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 6 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.6 Inches Tape speed 30 Inches/sec Transfer rate 390 Words/sec Start time 6.0 Millisec Stop time 6.5 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 60 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 1/2 Inches Length of reel 800 Feet Composition Acetate Magnetic core storage consists of two banks of 1024 words each and one bank of 4096 words. These are divided into 6 fields of 1024 words, any two of which
BRL 1961, WHIRLWIND II, start page 1018
may be used at a given time. A change fields instruction permits selection of the two fields to be used. A word consists of 16 digits plus a parity digit. Read-rewrite time is seven microseconds. Magnetic drum storage consists of an auxiliary drum containing 12 groups each consisting of 2048 words plus six groups of 2048 words each contained on a buffer drum. The buffer drum contains four other groups which are used for input-output buffering of digital data. A total of five magnetic tape units is available, of these a maximum of four may be connected to the computer at any one time and up to three may be connected to the associated delayed (off-line) printout system. INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape (Ferranti) 200 lines/sec Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 14 lines/sec Magnetic Tape 30 in/sec Light Guns Manual Paper Tape (Teletype) 60 words/min Switches Manual Digital Data Input 1,300 points/sec Real Time Clock 60 pulses/sec OUTPUT Media Speed Magnetic Tape 188 char/sec Oscilloscope-camera 200 char/sec Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec Oscilloscope-Camera 2 frames/sec Oscilloscope-Display 6,000 points/sec Printed Page (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec Paper Tape (Teletype) 60 words/min Printer (Teletype) 60 words/min Digital Data Outputs 1,300 pulses/sec Audible Alarm-Lights 4 words/sec The oscilloscope displays vectors at the rate of 6,000 vectors/sec and characters at the rate of 3,000 char/sec. An IBM 523, modified, is used for reading and punching. Magnetic tape may be used for delayed Flexowriter output (off-line). CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Tubes 14,500 7AK7 6,145 6145 5,665 40 Types Diodes 14,000 Transistors None Magnetic Cores 104,448 Used in core memory only. CHECKING FEATURES Arithmetic element checks, parity checks of core memory and magnetic drums, and information transfer checks. Marginal checking is done one hour daily to determine if any computer circuits have deteriorated during the past 24 hours. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer 200 KVA Power, air conditioner 150 KVA Volume, computer 4,400 cu ft Volume, input-output 2,100 cu ft Volume, air conditioner 4,200 cu ft Area, computer 450 sq ft Area, input-output 210 sq ft Area, sir conditioner 525 sq ft Room size, computer 30 ft x 70 ft Room size, input-output 25 ft x 40 ft Room size, air conditioner 30 ft x 50 ft Floor loading 12 lbs/sq ft 60 lbs concen max Capacity, air conditioner 110 Tons Weight, computer 37,000 lbs Weight, air conditioner 16,000 lbs PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Supervisors 1 1 1 Librarians 1 1 1 Operators 1 2 3 Engineers 1 1 1 Technicians 2 4 6 In-Output Oper 2 2 2 Tape Handlers 2 2 2 RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Average error-free running period 19.4 Hours Good time 3,172.3 Hours Attempted to run time 3,237.9 Hours Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.98 Figures based on period 15 May 56 to 24 Sep 56 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 1950 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features are the display system including twenty- five 16" display scopes, 19 5" display scopes, 13 light guns, manual intervention switches and audible alarms. Digital data inputs and outputs via telephone lines, teletype input and output and real time clock. INSTALLATIONS Digital Computer Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge 39, Massachusetts
BRL 1961, WISC, start page 1020


Wisconsin Integrally Synchronized Computer MANUFACTURER University of Wisconsin Department of Electrical Engineering Computing Laboratory
Photo by the University of Wisconsin APPLICATIONS General purpose scientific and engineering computation, engineering experimentation and training. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 50 Binary digits/instruction 50 Instructions word 1 Instructions decoded 16 Instructions used 16 Arithmetic system Floating point Instruction type Three address Number range 40 binary digits times 2+-255 Instruction word format +---------+-------+---------+---------+----------+ | 10 | 4 | 12 | 12 | 12 | +---------+-------+---------+---------+----------+ | X | T | A | B | C | | SPECIAL | TYPE | ADDRESS | ADDRESS | ADDRESS | +---------+-------+---------+---------+----------+ | 50 - 41 | 40-37 | 36 - 25 | 24 - 13 | 12 - 1 | +---------+-------+---------+---------+----------+ 1 bit (#49) used to select fixed point operation, breakpoint operation, etc. 6 bits (#41-46) used (along with 12 bits) to allow completely general Extract operation: Extract any number of bits from any stored word, shift right or left any number of places, insert into arty other stored word.
BRL 1961, WISC, start page 1021
ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl. Stor. Access- Microsec Add 16,700 Mult 16,700 Div 16,700 Construction (Arithmetic unit only Type Quantity Tubes 6211 400 5844 l00 6AW8 4 6CM6 6 Diodes 1N38 200 Rapid access word registers 7 Basic pulse repetition rate 100 Kc/sec Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential Concurrent Operations are carried out on four instructions simultaneously (Integral Synchronization) resulting in efficient use of access time. The four concurrent operations are read order N, locate two operands called for by order N-1, perform arithmetic of order N-2, and deliver result of order N-3. Floating point makes efficient use of otherwise long addition time. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Drum 1,024 51,200 0 - 16,700 Magnetic Drum 4 550 Magnetic Drum 3 440 INPUT Media Speed Punched Paper Tape 10 sexadec char/sec Flexowriter Keyboard Manual OUTPUT Media Speed Punched Paper Tape 10 sexadec char/sec Flexowriter Typewriter 10 sexadec char/sec Oscilloscope Monitor CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Tubes 5844 650 6211 650 6AQ5 - 6CM6 100 6AW8 14 6AG5 32 Diodes 1N38 400 1N1128 3 1N1128R 3 6AQ6 being replaced by 6CM6 CHECKING FEATURES Manually operated marginal checking voltages Set of diagnostic routines POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 10.5 Kw Power, air conditioner 7.5 Kw Area, computer 40 sq ft Area, air conditioner 15 sq ft Capacity, air conditioner 7.5 Tons PRODUCTION RECORD Produced 1 Operating 1 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One 8-Hour Shift Engineers 1 Technicians Students ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Extract instruction and floating point controls. Remote control. Digits in instructions corresponding to the sign of significant digits in numbers are not used in any instruction. Extract instruction is the only instruction which makes use of digits corresponding to exponent in numerical data. System is financed by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation and the University of Wisconsin, College of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering. Design was governed largely by striving for simplicity of operation. Outstanding features include integral synchronization, general extract, fixed or floating point operation and a 50 bit word length. FUTURE PLANS Indirect addressing with automatic modification has been designed and a photoelectric reader and high speed punch have been acquired. INSTALLATIONS Computing Laboratory Department of Electrical Engineering College of Engineering University of Wisconsin Madison 6, Wisconsin
BRL 1961, WRU SEARCHING SELECTOR, start page 1022


Western Reserve University Searching Selector MANUFACTURER Western Reserve University
Photo by Western Reserve University APPLICATIONS Located at 10831 Magnolia Road, Cleveland 6, Ohio, the system is used for the scanning of encoded abstracts of scientific publications for literature searching purposes. Applied to literature projects of American Society for Metals, American Diabetes Association, and Communicable Disease Center (Atlanta, Ga.). Media STORAGE Paper Tape Library Relays The paper tape library is scanned at Flexowriter speeds.
BRL 1961, WRU SEARCHING SELECTOR, start page 1023
INPUT Medium Speed Paper Tape 10 char/sec OUTPUT Medium Speed Typed Page 10 char/sec Paper Tape 10 char/sec PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One 8-Hour Shift Two 8-Hour Shifts Used Recomm Used Recomm Analysts 1 1 1 1 Programmers 1 1 1 1 Operators 1 1 2 2 RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Good time 60 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time 70 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.86 Above figures based on period 1 Jan 60 to 1 May 60 Time is available for rent to qualified outside organ- izations. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS The starting point for designing this equipment was the realization that documentation systems are called upon to meet a wide variety of information requirements. These range from narrowly defined specific inquiries to comprehensive correlations. More detailed analysis revealed that any given requirement almost without exception invclves a combination of several concepts. Both subject indexing, as ordinarily practiced, and the pigeon-hole type of classification systems make use of preestablished concept combinations insofar as such combinations are used at all. Hand-sorted punched cards and various mechanized systems have demonstrated during the past ten years that highly advantageous benefits may be realized by defining searching and selecting operations in terms of concept combinations not established or anticipated at the time of analyzing the subject contents of documents. The Western Reserve Searching Selector permits an exceptionally wide range of concepts to be used in defining and conducting searching operations. Thus, the scope of a search may be defined not only in terms of specific substances, devices, attributes, processes, conditions, organisms, persons, locations, etc., but also in terms of generic concepts and their relationships to specific terms. Furthermore, observational relationships, for example the roles in a given experiment or situation of various substances, devices, etc, taken either specifically or generically, may also be designed as points of reference in defining searches. This wide range of possibilities is accomplished by the ability of the Western Reserve Searching Selector to detect combinations of symbols and combinations of combinations at a multiplicity of levels. At each level, combinations may be defined in terms of logical product, logical sum, logical difference or derived complex logical relationships. The different combinational levels may be thought of as analogous to the combining of letters to construct sentences, sentences to construct paragraphs, etc. The machine is able automatically to detect the start and end of each organized symbolic unit analogous to word, phase, sentence, or paragraph. This use of analogy, though illuminating, must not be regarded as definitive. Actually, to avoid the complexity of phrasing and sentence structure encountered in natural language, well-defined rules for indicating relationship of a syntactical nature have been worked out. Application of these rules results in the expressing of the subject content of a given document in the form of a telegraphic-style abstract with syntactical relationships rendered explicit by carefully defined role indicator. Encoding the terminology in such abstracts explicitly indicates the relationship of each term to concepts of generic scope. Prior to conducting a search, an information requirement is analyzed in terms of appropriate specific and generic terms, role indicators and logically defined relationships between them. The information requirement is thus analyzed on the same basis as is used to record the information contents of documents in the form of encoded abstracts. The searching step as performed by the Searching Selector consists of a series of logically defined matching operations involving the common set of terms used for analyzing the information requirement and the information contents of documents: The Searching Selector has been designed so that ten searches may be conducted simultaneously. Such searches may be interrelated as to scope or completely independent. FUTURE PLANS The system has been replaced during 1960 with the GE 250 computing system. INSTALLATIONS Center for Documentation and Communication Research Western Research University Cleveland 6, Ohio

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