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Chapter 3

Current Air Defense Artillery Weapon Systems


With the advent of aircraft, armies of the world began searching for weapon systems to counter this threat. World War II brought a new era to aircraft performance and tactics. To counter these threats, air defense artillery weapons were developed with increased range and rate of fire. Many weapon systems began to use advanced types of computing sights and radar. Even with these improvements, the aircraft still had an inherent advantage in that after the projectile left the gun it was unguided (followed a ballistic trajectory), resulting in a very low kill probability. In the fall of 1944, the first US air defense artillery missile was conceived at Fort Bliss, Texas. Development of a radically new weapon system, based on the guided surface-to-air missile as a means of destroying enemy aircraft, was begun in 1945. The project was named after Nike, the Creek goddess of victory.

The first Nike Ajax battery became operational in December 1953. Because of additional requirements, the Nike Hercules and the low-altitude Hawk systems were developed and produced.


Nike Hercules, successor to the first-generation Nike Ajax air defense artillery weapon system, has dramatically demonstrated the dynamic growth potential of the Nilre family of missile systems. By now most of the Nike Hercules systems in the field have been updated by modifications to form the Improved Hike Hercules system. This system increases many of the capabilities of the basic Nike Heroules system while incorporating the most advanced and sophisticated electronic counter-cormfermeasures (ECCM) equipment available.


Nike Hercules, with its ability to engage high-performance aircraft at both high and low altitudes, its long ranges, and its nuclear capability, can engage and destroy an entire formation of hostile aircraft. Reliable, extremely accurate, and possessing a large kill radius, the system has demonstrated its effectiveness against airborne targets traveling at speeds in excess of 2,100 miles per hour (mach 3), at ranges greater than 75 miles, and at altitudes up to 150, 000 feet. In addition, the system can effectively engage surface targets at ranges greater than its surface-to-air range capability.

Normally, this flexible system will function as part of an integrated air defense complex; however, each firing battery is capable of functioning as an autonomous fire unit when required. The Nike Hercules system is emplaced in two areas normally separated by a distance of approximately 1 to 3 miles. The fire control equipment is located in the battery control area (fig 46), while equipment and facilities needed to assemble, store, check out, and launch a Nike Hercules missile are located in the launching area (fig 47).

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Figure 46. Nike Hercules battery control area.

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Figure 47. Nike Hercules launching area.

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The same basic concept of operation and command guidance is used for Nike Ajar, Nike Hercules, and Improved Nike Hercules. To understand how Nike Hercules works, only the major items of equipment need be considered: an electronic computer, three radars, a missile, and a launcher (fig 48).

Figure 48. Scheme of operations, Nike Hercules system.

Figure 48. Scheme of operations, Nike Hercules system.

The acquisition radar detects a target which, when identified as hostile, is designated to a target tracking radar. The target tracking radar acquires and tracks the target; measures range, azimuth, and elevation to the target; and continuously sends these data to the computer. A third radar, the missile tracking radar, locks on the missile on a launcher; measures range, azimuth, and elevation of the missile in flight; and continuously sends this information to the computer. The computer, knowing the location of both target and missile, continuously computes a kill point, directs the missile to the killpoint, and causes the burst command to be sent to the missile at the appropriate time.


The major equipment items of the fire control platoon are the director station, tracking station, target tracking radar, missile tracking radar, and acquisition radar. The director station houses the computer, battery control console, and communications switchboard. The

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computer, using target and missile present position information, computes a predicted kill point. With this information, it formulates the commands which the missile tracking radar must send to the missile to guide it to the kill point. The battery control console is the control center of the Nlke Hercules system. The acquisition radar operator, stationed at this console, operates the acquisition radar, a long-range search radar capable of detecting targets approaching the defended area. From information provided by the acquisition radar and from other information supplied to the battery control console, the battery control officer analyzes the tactical situation and directs operations of the battery during an engagement. The switchboard provides the battery control officer with communications to the necessary elements of the battery.

The trading station houses electronic equipment and operational controls of the missile tracking and target tracking radars. Separate control consoles are provided for each radar. At the target radar control console, three operators, using the controls and indicators, track the target designated by the battery control officer. The target tracking radar automatically sends the required target position information to the computer. The missile radar control console is manned by a single operator. The acquiring and tracking of a missile are entirely automatic-the operator need only monitor the missile tracking radar operation during an engagement. When the missile is being tracked, the missile tracking radar provides the computer with the missile present position information needed to determine the predicted kill point. The missile tracking radar continues to supply the computer with missile present position information and transmits the commands from the computer necessary to guide the missile to the kill point and cause warhead detonation.


The launching platoon area contains facilities for assembly, storage, checkout, and launching of missiles. The launching platoon equipment is composed primarily of the launching control station, launching section equipment, and associated power generating equipment.

The launching control station contains the launching control console and a communications switchboard. Under the direction of the launching control officer, a panel operator selects the launching section from which the missiles are to be fired. Each launching section contains a section control group (formerly known as launching section selector) which distributes power to the launchers within the section and exercises control of them.


The major components of the missile are received at the assembly area in shipping containers. Here the main body of the missile is assembled and the guidance unit tested. The explosive components of the missile are received and tested at the service area. The warhead is also mated to the missile body in the service area.


The Nike Hercules missile (fig 49) is a solid-propellant missile. It includes the missile body and rocket-motor cluster. When the missile is launched, it is accelerated to supersonic velocity by the rocket-motor cluster (booster). After the first few seconds of flight, the booster separates from the missile body and the missile rocket motor ignites. Guidance

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commands in the form of steering orders are sent from the missile tracking radar to steer the missile body to the predicted kill point. At the optimum time, warhead detonation occurs.

Figure 49. Nike Hercules missile.

Figure 49. Nike Hercules missile.


The Nike Hercules system, operational on sites in the United States and certain foreign countries since June 1958, is rapidly being modified to become the Improved Nike Hercules system. Modifications that will be complete in the near future follow the concept that air defense artillery systems must advance with the increased threat to our defended areas. Improved Nike Hercules, using the basic system as its foundation, has one additional radar and advanced electronic devices to improve the system capability to counter the changing threat. No improvements were required in the launching area. Thus, the useful life of Nike Hercules has been extended, giving it the ability to neutralize advanced weapon systems equipped with the latest electronic devices.

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Figure 50. Target ranging radar.

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Improved Nike Hercules retains all of the capabilities of the earlier basic Nike Hercules system; it retains the long-range, surface-to-surface capability and the high- and low-altitude, surface-to-air coverage. Added to the system is an increased tracking capability, attained by modification of the fire control platoon equipment and addition of the target ranging radar.

Outwardly, the only discernible change in the fire control platoon equipment is the addition of the target ranging radar (fig 50) whose external appearance is almost identical to that of the other Nike Hercules tracking radars. This additional radar improves the presentation of target present position data in an electronic countermeasures environment.


Emphasis on air defense deployed in depth in support of the army in the field prompted the Army to undertake a series of studies to determine if Nike Hercules, with a minimum of cost and new equipment, could be more effectively employed as a mobile air defense artillery system. As a result of these studies, tests were begun to explore this new potential. By modifying existing equipment and developing new equipment, a mobile Nike Hercules system was attained.

The standard launcher was converted to a mobile launcher (fig 51) by three modification kits: a transport kit consisting of an axle and kingpin suspension; a field adaption kit consisting of jacks, outriggers, and footplates; and a blast deflector kit consisting of a blast shield, emplacement linkage, and tiedown linkage. The transport and field adaption kits permit the converted mobile launcher to be towed by a prime mover and to be emplaced easily without need for a concrete pad, while the blast deflector kit helps stabilize the launcher by proper distribution of the thrust load.

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Figure 51. Nike Hercules mobile launcher.

The ready-round transporter (fig 52) was developed to carry an assembled Nike Hercules round, eliminating the necessity of missile body and rocket motor cluster (booster) joining on the launcher. The mobile launcher receives the round directly from the ready-round transporter, thus saving time and effort.

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(figure 52 - - is not included in this conversion)
Figure 52. Nike Hercules ready-round transporter.

In addition, other equipment was modified to enhance mobility. These items include the section operating equipment trailer (fig 53) housing the section control group; the test station truck (fig 54) containing the equipment for servicing, testing, and performing organizational maintenance on the missiles; and a dolly-mounted launching control-indicator (fig 55).

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Figure 53. Nike Hercules section operating equipment trailer.

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Figure 54. Nike Hercules test station truck.

Special tools and equipment are provided with the fire control platoon equipment to reduce the time required to emplace and march order the equipment. Cable reel racks (fig 56) are used to rapidly pick up and lay interarea cables. A vehicle-mounted A-frame is provided for emplacing the acquisition antenna receiver-transmitter group. A hoisting beam is provided for removing the cable reel racks from the prime movers. Thus, the capabilities of cross-country mobility and rapid emplacement and march order with minimum manpower were achieved without sacrifice of reliability or performance.

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Figure 55. Nike Hercules dolly-mounted launching control-indicator.

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Figure 56.. Cable reel racks.


With the advent of the Improved Nike Hercules system with its increased capability, it was desirable to extend the target detection range at selected sites. This was done by adding the high-power acquisition radar (HIPAR) (fig 57). The HIPAR does not nullify the usefulness of the basic acquisition radar; rather, it supplements the search ability of this system and greatly enhances the performance of the battery. A mobile version of this radar is underdevelopment.

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Figure 57. High-power acquisition radar.

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Figure 58. AN/FPS-71 antenna.

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The growth potential of the Nike system was again demonstrated when it was decided to supplement the search, acquisition, and ECCM capabilities of Nike Hercules sites not designated to receive HIPAR. The radar selected for installation at these units was designated the alternate battery acquisition radar (ABAR). The ABAR resulted from modification of the AN/FPS- 36 and AN/FPS-61 defense acquisition radars discussed in chapter 2.

The simplexed ABAR AN/FPS-75 was produced by providing integration kits so that the output of the AN/FPS-36 could be viewed on the consoles of the Nike Hercules system. The addition of ECCM capabilities converted the AN/FPS- 75 to the AN/PPS- 71 (fig 58).

The diplexed ABAR is known as the AN/FPS-69. It is derived from the AN/FPS-61 defense acquisition radar and for tactical usage was designed to be deployed on a collocated site where it serves both as an ABAR and DAR.

In 1965, the operation of both the AN/FPS-71 and the AN/FPS-69 radars was further enhanced by increased power output, greater receiver sensitivity, and more efficient moving target indicator circuits, and the nomenclature was changed to Improved AN/FPS-71 or Improved AN/FPS-69.

The AN/FPA-16 and AN/FPA-15 ECCM consoles are video presentation monitor systems employed with the AN/FPS- 71 and AN/FPS-69, respectively. Under control of two operators and an electronic warfare officer, these consoles provide a central control point for operation of the ABAR and a comparison point where the output of the ABAR and low-power acquisition radar (UIPAR) can be monitored. Using the displays available at the consoles, the operators may quickly determine which ECCM features of the two acquisition radars will provide the battery control officer with The best video presentation in complex ECM environments.


On 3 June 1960, the improved Nike Hercules system destroyed a Corporal surface-to-surface missile (fig 59), the first known kill of a ballistic missile by another missile. On 12 August 1960, Improved Nike Hercules destroyed another Nike Hercules missile that had

(figure 56 - - is not included in this conversion)
Figure 59. Nike Hercules destroys Corporal missile.

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Figure 60. Nike Hercules destroys Nike Hercules.

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been launched as a target (fig 60). The Nike Hercules missile presented a far more difficult target than the Corporal missile, having a higher velocity and smaller size. Further tests have been conducted to determine the extent of ATBM capability,

To improve on this antimissile capability, certain Improved Nike Hercules systems have received additional modifications, increasing their ability to engage some types of hostile tactical missiles before they can penetrate defended areas.


The use of air defense artillery in a secondary role against surface targets has historical precedent in both World War II and Korea. When surface-to-air missiles replaced antiaircraft guns, it appeared that this traditional role would no longer exist. It is common knowledge that Nlke Hercules has a deadly capability against high-performance aerial targets. Not so well known, however, is that the pinpoint accuracy of Nike Hercules against distant surface targets permits it to engage effectively enemy ground concentrations. This dual capability is retained in the Improved Nike Hercules system.

Since the inception of the Nike Hercules program, the tactical advantage of developing Nike Hercules into a highly mobile weapon to support the army in the field has been recognized. In 1959, the potential of Nike Hercules as a mobile air defense artillery weapon became evident and interest in the surface-to-surface capability increased.

In 1960, the US Army Air Defense School began presenting formal instruction on Nike Hercules surface-to-surface employment and computation of firing data. 1961, troop firings provided additional testing of Nike Hercules as a surface weapon. The US Army Air Defense School, US Army Artillery and Missile School, US Army Air Defense Board, and the prime contractor have studied numerous concepts and made subsequent recommendations regarding organization and mobility to improve the Nike Hercules system capability in the surface-to-surface role. Nike Hercules, with its quick reaction time, can be used to attack targets of opportunity in support of field army. operations.


Firing data are computed by an air defense artillery group operations section (or battalion operations section in a separate battalion defense). The data required by the firing battery are target range, azimuth, and elevation; fuze setting for proper height of burst; and computer dial settings. Figure 61 shows the scheme of operation for a Nike Hercules surface-to- surface mission.

Target range, azimuth, and elevation are set into the target tracking radar, and dial settings are made on the computer. The missile is fired, tracked by the missile tracking radar, and steered toward an aiming point above the target. As far as the system is concerned, the missile is heading toward a stationary target in space. At the proper instant the missile is given a dive command to position it in the proper attitude to hit the target. After the dive command is executed, the missile tracking radar ceases tracking and the missile continues to the target on a ballistic trajectory.

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Figure 51. Nike Hercules surface-to-surface scheme of operation.

Figure 61. Nike Hercules surface-to-surface scheme of operation.

Entering the computed firing data into the Nike Hercules system is relatively easy. Tests conducted at Fort Bliss show that the time required for making the required settings does not exceed 5 minutes. During the time a battery is engaged in a surface-to-surface mission, it is still capable of searching with its acquisition radar to locate any approaching airborne object. After successfully completing the surface-to-surface mission, the battery can return to its air defense mission in a matter of seconds.


I Under current concepts, Nike Hercules units are assigned to the field army in an active theater of operations. The use of Nike Hercules in a surface-to-surface mission in the field army will depend on the authority delegated to the field army commander by the regional air defense commander. Normally, the regional air defense commander will delegate authority for operational employment of organic Army air defense artillery units. The field army commander then may utilize Nike Hercules in a surface-to-surface mission. If operational employment of air defense artillery units has not been delegated to the field army commander, the regional air defense commander must approve the mission. When Nike Hercules is to be employed in a surface-to-surface role, coordination must be effected at the tactical operations center between the fire support element, air defense element, units selected for the

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mission, and the Army air defense commander. The fire mission will then be relayed from the air defense element to the AADCP. The Army air defense commander will designate an air defense artillery group (battalion) to perform the mission.


Normally, Nike Hercules units are utilized only with the field army in a theater of operations. Fire units overseas may be deployed in the area defense to provide proper coverage throughout the area being defended, but weighted toward priority areas and exposed boundaries .

Early target kill is desired and achieved by placing Nike Hercules well forward in the field army area; however, units normally should not be positioned any closer than 30 kilometers from the forward edge of the battle area.

Within CONUS, Nike Hercules is deployed about the vital area to provide a balanced defense, one which can deliver an approximately equal amount of firepower along all directions of attack. It is used by Army air defense to give NORAD an inner ring of defenses around target areas which encompass more than 100 cities and military bases.


Although the AN/MPQ-36, the basic engagement simulator for the Nike Hercules system, was an important aid in training, simulated targets and ECM could be readily distinguished from true presentations. A contract to improve greatly the AN/MPQ-36 during 1963-65 was awarded in December 1961. Designated the guided missile system radar-signal simulator station, AN/MPQ-TI (fig 62), the first deliveries occurred in July 1964. The first maintenance class started training in October 1964.

The AN/MPQ-T1 is a compact, transistorized engagement simulator designed for the Nike Hercules and Improved Nike Hercules systems and associated radars (HIPAR and ABAR). The improved simulator introduces realistic target simulation, sophisticated ECM, and chaff. Masking effects and radar clutter, variable with antenna elevation, as well as identification responses from friendly aircraft, can be simulated.

Up to six independent simulated targets, generated by controlled electronic signals, can be displayed on the radar scopes. Each target can travel at speeds up to 2, OM) knots and at altitudes up to 150,000 feet, dive at a rate of 80,000 feet per minute and climb at half that rate, and turn at rates up to 200 per second. Size of targets can be varied to produce calibrated returns of any desired dimension from 0.1 to 100 square meters. The device can simulate a Nike Hercules missile, initiate the burst command by either the computer or simulator, program missile malfunctions, and fire additional missiles after a burst order.

The addition of ECM and chaff cabinets provides one of the most important capabilities of the simulator--the ability to simulate several types of countermeasures which an enemy may be expected to use. Effects of mechanical jamming and five types of electronic jamming can be produced and displayed on the radar scope screens of the Nike Hercules system. Chaff, for instance, can be simulated as being dispensed forward, laterally, or to the rear of the simulated target or targets.

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Figure 62. Nike Hercules system engagement simulator AN/MPQ-T1.

Figure 62. Nike Hercules system engagement simulator AN/MPQ-TI.

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Training under simulated tactical conditions is provided by the AN/MPQ-TI, enabling Nike Hercules fire control operators to develop the speed and accuracy necessary to engage successfully actual combat targets. This simulator provides an improved, much-needed aid in training operators by use of organic scoring panels and error recorders. These timers and sensing devices provide a permanent record of operator performance.

All components of the AN/MPQ-T1 are housed in a semitrailer that has a dolly and towbar at the front. Equipped with a prime mover, the simulator is mobile over primary or secondary roads.

Six AN/MPQ-T1 simulators are presently available at McGregor Range for use by units attending short notice annual practice (SNAP). In addition, two AN/MPQ-36 simulators are still in use. During FY 65, practically 100 percent of all targets used during SNAP were generated by simulators, resulting in a savings of approximately $5.7 million. As presently scheduled, the two AN/MPQ-36 simulators still in use at McGregor Range will be replaced by the newer AN/MPQ-T1 by June 1966, giving a total of eight AN/MPQ-T1 available for use by SNAP units at Fort Bliss.


The application of guided missiles for air defense provided a solution against high-speed, high-altitude targets. There was, however, the possibility of sneak attack by low-flying aircraft. Realization of this threat indicated the need for a new guided missile system to combat effectively an attack of this sort. The Hawk missile system was designed to counter the low-altitude threat. The system is reliable, mobile, and accurate and has the capability to engage two targets simultaneously. Several missiles can be in flight at the same time. Each missile battery has the personnel, equipment, and facilities required for operation or movement of the complete unit.

Semiactive homing guidance (fig 63) is used in the Hawk system for missile control during flight. Ground-based, continuous-wave radars acquire and track the target. The missile receives radiofrequency (RF) energy reflected from the target and uses this energy in the development of steering commands to direct the missile to the target.

Figure 63. Semiactive homing guidance operation.

Figure 63. Semiactive homing guidance operation.

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Like all air defense artillery missile systems, Hawk must accomplish four basic tasks: defection, identification, tracking, and target kill (fig 64). Hawk can peform these functions (fig 65) at extremely low altitudes while retaining a high degree of mobility.

Figure 64. Hawk targer kill.

To detect targets, the Hawk system uses two acquisition radars. One of these, the continuous-wave acquisition radar (CWAR), covers the low-altitude zone, the primary zone of consideration for Hawk. This radar utilizes the doppler effect to detect low-flying targets. The doppler effect is that effect produced by a change or shift in frequency due to the movement of the object reflecting that frequency. If the transmitted energy strikes a stationary object, such as a hill or building, it is returned to the radar with frequency unchanged.

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Within the radar, a comparison is made between the transmitted and received frequencies, and, if there is no change, no video is presented on the associated radar screen. However, if the transmitted energy strikes a moving object, such as an aircraft, its frequency will be changed. The amount of change, which is the doppler effect, is directly proportional to the radial speed of the aircraft with respect to the radar. When the reflected energy returns to the radar receiver, a comparison is again made with the transmitted frequency. This time the radar will detect the frequency change, and video will be presented on the associated radar screen representing the radial speed of the target. The video will appear at the azimuth determined by the radar antenna position at the time of detection. Thus, low-flying targets are readily detected because reflections from stationary objects on the ground (ground clutter) are not presented on the radar screen.

Figure 65. Hawk system scheme of operations.

The other detection radar, the pulse acquisition radar (PAR), complements the coverage area of the CWAR by providing a medium-altitude, medium-range detection capability to the system. It is synchronized with the CWAR in rotation. This pulse-type radar is very similar to those found in other air defense artillery missile systems but has some significant improvements over earlier types. The PAR has a limited capability at very low altitudes because its beam is directed slightly upward to avoid reflections from stationary ground objects.

Synchronized rotation of the two acquisition radars permits coordinated, continual searching for targets. Target information from both radars is automatically relayed to the

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battery control central by means of data cabling. Within the battery control central, all operations of the battery are integrated and controlled during an engagement. Target idendfication is accomplished in the Hawk missile battery by use of the Mark X IPF equipment, or through communications control with higher headquarters.

The third basic function, the trading phase, is initiated upon target assignment to a firing section. A firing section consists of one illuminator radar and three missile launchers with missiles. Each launcher can accommodate up to three Hawk missiles. Upon receiving a target assignment, the illuminator in the assigned section is slewed to the azimuth of the detected target; then it searches a small area of the sky for the target. When the illuminator receives a reflected signal beating a frequency change, it locks on the target and automadcally tracks it during the remainder of the engagement.

Similar to the operation of the CWAR, the illuminator detects targets and tracks them on the basis of radial speed. As this radar also uses the doppler effect, it can track targets although they are flying at treetop level. Once the illuminator is locked on the target, the firing operator in the battery control central selects one launcher within his firing section for firing. The illuminator and the selected launcher are now slaved together, causing the missiles on the selected launcher to be aimed directly at the targer. In the battery control central, the firing console operator is observing all of these actions closely, end the tactical control officer is monitoring the engagement. When all conditions for firing have been met, the firing pushbutton is pressed, lead angle and superelevation are automatically inserted in the launcher, and the Hawk missile is launched.

Launching the missile marks the beginning of the killing phase, the fourth basic function. The Hawk missile homes on energy reflected by the target. It continually watches its target through a tracking antenna onboard the missile while the semiactive homing guidance system continually adjusts the missile's course to insure successful intercept. Target speed is determined by continuous comparison of the transmitted energy of the illuminator with the reflected energy from the target. Target maneuver is determined by the position of the missile's target tracking antenna. Using this information to make continuous adjustments in its course, the Hawk missile travels the most direct route to the kill point.


The function of the pulse acquisition radar (PAR) (fig 66) is to detect moving targets and continually furnish target range and azimuth to plan position indicators (PPI) in the battery control central. The IPF system is also contained in the PAR. The PAR antenna control system supplies antenna synchronizing data to the CWAR. he PAR transmitter generates pulses of RF energy directed against an antenna reflector. As these pulses are being radiated, the antenna is rotating at 20 revolutions per minute. The antenna, therefore, scans 6, 400 mils every 3 seconds. When a target enters the radar radiation field, pulses of RF energy which strike the target are reflected. This reflected energy is processed and sent as video information to the display consoles in the battery control central. The PPI displays are synchronized to represent target position relative to the PAR location. The radar uses moving target indicator circuitry to suppress stationary target return signals on the display consoles.

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Figure 66. Pulse acquisition radar (PAR).


Because it uses the continuous-wave principle, the CWAR has two antennas, the transmitter being in the upper portion of the antenna and the receiver in the bottom portion. A beam of RF energy transmitted by the CWAR (fig 67) is continually swept through 6,400 mils

Figure 67. Continuous-wave acquisition radar (CWAR).

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by rotation of the antenna. When the beam striltes a moving oblect, a portion of the energy is reflected to the radar, is resolved into radial speed and azimuth, and is then displayed as video information in the battery control central. The CWAR normally rotates synchronously with the PAR; thus, the target data presented on composite displays can be easily correlated.


The battery control central (fig 68) is a centrally located operations shelter that provides equipment for control of the overall operation of the Hawk battery during tactical firing operations. This shelter and the design of the Hawk system permit continuous control of the entire missile battery by an officer designated as the tactical control officer. Four additional personnel are required for normal operation of the battery control central, each operator being stationed at one of the consoles.

(1) Right interior. (2) Left interior.

Figure 68. Battery control central.

The tactical control console provides a cathode-ray tube display for observing targets detected by the CWAR and PAR. The tactical control console display presents PPI video from the PAR and plan speed indicator (PSI) video from the CWAR. This console also provides controls for maintaining overall coordination and command control of the engagement. Associated with this console are components for the remote operation of the IFF equipment.

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The azimuth-speed indicator console provides a cathode ray tube display for observing low-altitude targets detected only by the CWAR. The azlmuth-speed indicator utilizes a rectangular display which shows radial speed and azimuth of the targets. The console also provides power controls for remotely activating the CWAR.

Each of the two identical firing consoles contains a cathode-ray tube display used in tracking targets and evaluating intercepts. The firing console indicators present target information from the pulse acquisition radar, CWAR, range-only radar, and associated illuminator. Each firing console also provides controls for remotely activating ifs associated illuminator radar and launchers, for alinement of the illuminator radar on the target to be engaged, for selection of a launcher, and for firing the missile.

A battery status indicator panel displays alert status, target altitude, and fire control commands from the AADCP. Fire control commands of the tactical control officer and status of the firing sections appear as illuminated labels on the battery status indicator.


The function of the remotely controlled high-powered illuminator radar (HIPIR) (fig 69), which is replacing the low-power illuminator radar(LOPIR), is to automatically track the target, keep the target illuminated with RF energy, and provide information to the battery control central, launchers, and missiles. The missile uses direct RF energy from the HIPIR and reflected RF energy from the target to compute its own guidance commands. There are two HIPIR's in the Hawk missile battery. Because this is a continuous-wave radar, separate antennas are used for transmitting and receiving.

Figure 69. High-powered illuminator radar (HIPIR).

Figure 70. Range-only radar (ROR).

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During an ECM environment, range data on a target are most affected. For that reason, the Hawk system has a range-only radar (ROR) that is used when required as an auxiliary means of providing range information for the system. The ROR (fig 70) is a pulse-type, quick-response, range-measuring radar that operates in a separate frequency band from that of the other radars in the system. It is normally operated remotely from the battery control central. The ROR can be activated manually by the fire control operator or automatically by one of the illuminator radars. Once activated, it is slaved to the associated illuminator in azimuth and elevation and presents a video signal to the battery control central where formulation of range data is accomplished.


During the Hawk firing sequence, the launcher (fig 71) receives tactical commands from the battery control central and positioning commands from its associated illuminator. When the illuminator is locked on the target, a selected launcher slews to me same azimuth and elevation as the illuminator antenna. As the radar tracks the target, the antenna pbsition

changes constantly. The three-place launcher automatically aims the missiles in azimuth and elevation to agree with the antenna position information received from the illuminator. Approximately 3 seconds after a fire command

is transmitted from the battery control central, the missile is launched. The 3-second delay enables stabilization of the missile tracking antenna and permits the launcher to select a missile, activate the missile power supplies, and slew to the lead angle commanded by the illuminator. If the missile selected by the launcher firing selector does not leave the launcher, the HANGFIRE lamp in the battry control central will light and the next ready missile is automatically selected.

Figure 71. Hawk launcher and missiles.


The Hawk missile (fig 72) is propelled by a two-stage, solid-propellant motor and uses semiactive homing guidance. It is 16 feet 6 inches long and 14 inches in diameter, weighs 1,295 pounds, and has a dart-cruciform configuration. It has three basic functional systems: propulsion, guidance, and warhead. The missile body is divided structurally into two parts. The front body section consists of the radome, target tracking antenna with a hydraulic assembly which positions the antenna, hydraulic accumulator, electronic guidance and control chassis, and electrical power unit. The rear section consists of the warhead section, rocket-motor section, eleven actuator section, and four wing assemblies.

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Figure 72. Hawk missile.

Initial thrust to boost the missile to operational speed and sustaining thrust to maintain that speed are provided by the propulsion system. The guidance system uses energy reflected from the target to compute continually a collision course. The warhead system explodes the missile warhead at the optimum point to insure target kill. For safety purposes, a destruction system is provided to destroy the missile in flight if required.


Pallets are used for storing and transporting ready missiles. The pallet, which may be mounted on a 2-ton, two-wheel trailer (fig 73), consists of three missile support arms and two index fittings connected to the skid. The missile support arms are contoured to the shape of the missile, each arm having a forward and rear missile latch to secure a missile. The index fittings are provided to position the loader properly for the transfer of missiles to or from the pellet. A pellet with three missiles can be transported by helicopter when the trailer is detached.

Figure 73. Hawk pallet mounted on 2-ton trailer.

Figure 74. Loader-transporter transferring missiles to launcher.

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The lightweight loader-transporter is a full-track, self-propelled vehicle used to transfer from one to three missiles between the pellet and launcher (fig 74). When rigged as a crane, a secondary function of the loader-transporter is to pick up and transfer individual missiles and missile components. During movement of the battery, the three loader-transporters (organic to the battery) are carried in the cargo beds of extra-long-wheelbase 2.5-ton trucks.


The assault fire command console (AFCC) is a miniature battery control central contained in a compact, lightweight, rectangular case (fig 75). The console has permanently attached folding legs and can be emplaced in any convenient location. Six electronic panels mounted on the AFCC provide the capability for remote control of one firing

section of the battery. The AFCC is utilized as the alternate battery control central if the battery control central is not available. Also, this item of equipment enables the battery to move by echelon, keeping one firing section operational while the other firing section is moving. The AFCC provides a means of control of one CWAR, one HIPIR, and three launchers with a total of nine missiles.

Figure 75. Assault fire command console.


The missile test shop (fig 76) provides facilities for the assembly and test of Hawk missiles. The rest shop is a mobile, self-contained unit mounted on the chassis of a i-ton, 2-wheel trailer. The test shop includes the cables and accessories necessary to operate when it is connected to the missile under test. It carries the common and special tools and accessory equipment necessary to set up and maintain the missile test shop. This item of equipment is capable of missile and missile test shop checkout and maintenance under all-weather or blackout conditions.

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Figure 76. Hawk missile test shop. IMPROVED HAWK

During developmental testing, Hawk has demonstrated its accuracy and reliability by successful intercepts against tactical ballistic missiles as well as against slower speed targets such as helicopters. As a result of these firings, an Improved Hawk missile system is being developed. The Improved Hawk program will replace the current CWAR with a ballistic missile acquisition radar (BMAR) having increased speed-handling capability, range, and elevation coverage. Another item of equipment to be added will be the antimissile control central (AMCC), cabled between the BMAR and the battery control central, which will reduce system reaction time. Other improvements will provide modifications to existing fire control equipment. The program will also provide a new generation of Hawk missiles having increased intercept capabilities.

Figure 77. Ballistic missile acquisition radar.
Figure 77 shows the prototype BMAR.

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Currently under development is the self-propelled Hawk system which will enhance the maneuverability and effectiveness of Hawk in the field army area. Figure 78 shows the fighting element of a self-propelled platoon. It has three self-propelled launchers, one CWAR, one HIPIR, and one platoon operations central. The self-propelled launchers are idententical with the conventional launchers except that they are mounted on tracked vehicles (fig 79). The radars are the same as those used in current Hawk units. The platoon operations central contains the AFCC and IFF together with communications and other equipment normally found in an operations center.

Figure 78. Fighting element of a self-propelled Hawk platoon.

Figure 79. Self-propelled Hawk.

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The primary employment guideline for Hawk units is to position the fire units well forward along the low-altitude routes of approach to effect enemy target destruction prior to release of weapon regardless of the delivery technique employed. Hawk units providing air defense for vital area defense and priority targets within the field army likewise would be located well forward along the low-altitude routes of approach into the area. Units should be placed no closer than 10 kilometers from the forward edge of the battle area.


Until the recent development of the Hawk system engagement simulator AN/TPQ-21, the Hawk unit commander had insufficient means at his disposal for adequate realistic training of on-site radar operators. To train Hawk battery control central operators, it was necessary to obtain high-performance aircraft equipped with ECM emitters. In CONUS, the cost and availability of aircraft and the Federal Aviation Agency's control of flight patterns and use of electromagnetic emanations all contributed to a reduction of training effectiveness. In oversea forward areas, tactical aircraft have difficulty in simulating hostile actions and emitting ECM without providing the enemy with information of an intelligence nature. This situation has been improved considerably by use of the AN/TPQ-21 (fig 80), now issued to Hawk units.

When connected to the Hawk system, this simulator provides an artificial tactical environment for the training of operators. No change in operation of the battery control central is apparent to the operators when using the AN/TPQ-21 for target engagement. Along with the technique of inserting video, doppler, and other simulated effects, the ECCM features of the Hawk radars are used and the operator can be evaluated as to his ability to counter ECM.

The AN/TPQ-21 is inclosed in a Craig shelter similar to the battery control central and has the same transportability feature (helicopter, cargo aircraft, or truck). It is capable of simulating six airborne targets, each independently maneuverable against the Hawk battery. Simulated targets can emit ECM if so programed. Targets may be designated as hostile or friendly, and the size can be varied to produce returns of any desired cross section from 1 to 25 square meters.

The simulator also can produce complete launcher effects, AADCP symbology, radar ground clutter, IFF, and simulated responses from the five radars of the Hawk battery.

A quick-disconnect feature permits the simulator to be electrically switched in or out of the Hawk functional system in a few seconds; thus, change from a training status to combat readiness can be made immediately.

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Figure 80. Interior view of Hawk system engagement simulator AN/TPQ-21.


Since the end of hostilities in Korea, tactical doctrines have been revised and refined in the light of combat experiences and the improved capabilities of the materiel available for air defense. Also, the reorganization of the Army divisions imposed new requirements on air defense artillery units. This reorganization has increased the problem of providing a workable air defense for widely dispersed forward elements of the field army. These divisions require strong and effective air defense if they are to live and fight from day to day. Air defense artillery, now more than ever, must provide the active air defense of units in the forward areas to afford defense against air attack.

Much of the air defense of forward areas presumably will be furnished by missile systems; however, it may be expected that terrain features will result in air corridors below the radar horizon. This lack of air defense artillery radar coverage of the division front will provide the enemy with airspace in which to achieve surprise and in which aggressive air attacks may persist. These air corridors will be virtually uncontested avenues of approach, not only endangering forward area units, but air defense artillery and other support units as well.

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To fill this missile gap at low altitudes and in the forward areas of the battlefield, air defense artillery automatic weapon units will form a definite part of the air defense. Guntype air defense artillery weapons will provide the division with a defense against attack aircraft and airmobile forces. They also possess a secondary capability of attacking point surface targets, a capability well demonstrated during World War II and in Korea.

Aircraft should not be permitted to cross the forward edge of the battle area unobserved; therefore, the primary employment guideline for automatic weapons is to position the fire rmits well forward along the low-altitude routes of approach that are not effectively covered by other air defense artillery systems.

The Army is currently testing other gun systems with improved capabilities to replace or to complement the self-propelled, twin 40-mm M42 gun. These advanced guns are rapid firing, multiple-barrel systems that are highly accurate and possess a high degree of mobility.


The self-propelled, full-tracked, twin 40-mm gun M42, known as Duster, is an armored air defense artillery weapon. This vehicle (fig 81) was designed for employment with divisions for air defense, but because of its rapid rate of fire, it has also proved a valuable support weapon against ground targets. It has a cruising range of 100 miles at speeds up to 45 miles per hour, a fording depth of 40 inches, and a weight of 24 tons.

Figure 81. Twin 40-mm gun M42.

(page 75)

Major armament is the dual 40-mm automatic gun M2A1 on the mormt M4E1. the 40-mm gun is a high-velocity, flat-trajectory, clip-fed, automatic-loading weapon capable of firing 240 rounds per minute. The cyclic functioning of each gun is automatic from the firing of one round to the next.

The welded armorplate gun mount is an open-topped cylinder in the center section of the vehicle. This mount, supported on a ball bearing race ring, can be traversed 360' In either direction by power (9 seconds) or manually (10.30 per crank revolution). Crew positions for the squad leader, gunner, and two cannoneers are in the gun mount.

Three sighting devices are incorporated into the fire control system: the computing sight M38, reflex sight M24C, and speed ring sight. The computing sight M38 is designed to provide an effective means of controlling fire of the 40-mm gun against either a vehicular or aerial targer. The reflex sight M24C is designed to superimpose a reticle pattern in the gunner's line of sight and is used in conjunction with the M38 computing sight during power operation. The speed ring sight is used during manual operation if a power failure or local control system malfunction occurs. It has a rear peep element and a series of concentric circles as a front element.

The communications system of the M42 gun consists of radio set AN/GRC-106, radio receiving set AN/GRR-5, an intercommunications set, and interphones. This equipment is shock mounted on support shelves in the driving compartmenr. The AN/ORC-106 is used for intervehicular and command communication, and the AN/ORR-5 provides air defense artillery intelligence.

The M13 periscope is used by the driver and commander While operating under combat conditions during daylight, and the M19 periscope, a binocular-type, enlarged-view device, is used when the vehicle is being driven under blackout conditions. Infrared rays are projected forward from the blackout headlights to illuminate the field of view. The M19 periscope converts the infrared image to a visible image which is viewed through conventional eyepieces.


The M55 callber .50 multiple machine gun mount (fig 82) is a power-driven, semiarmored gun mount with a self-contained power rmit. The mount is constructed to accommodate four caliber .50, heavy barrel, turret-type Browning machineguns and ammunition chestsi It is equipped with a reflex sight (M18) through which the gunner may sight while seated in the gunner's seat inside the mount. The mounts are designed to be traversed through 3600 and elevated through an are of -100 to+900 from the horizontal. Power is directed by a pair of control handles placed directly in front of the operator's seat on the mount.

The caliber .50 Browning machineguas used on these mounts are air-cooled, recoiloperated guns and are fed by metallic link belts. The gua is cocked by means of a retracting slide. It is fundamentally an automatic weapon fired by means of a solenoid and will automadcally fire and load as long as pressure is applied to the triggers and ammunition is fed. All guns are fired simultaneously when pressure is applied to one or both triggers located in the control handles. The gun must be manually loaded and cocked for firing the first round. Each gun is fed from a callber .50 ammunition chest with a capacity of 200 rounds. To

(page 76)

prevent dlslodgment of the chest when the guns are fired at high angles, the ammunition support springs (at the base of each support) engage the chest and hold if in place.

The reflex sight (M18) is a reflector sight of speed ring type and is the standard fire control device (direct sighting) for the M55 mount. The sight projects reticle image, focused at infinity, upon an inclined glass plate. As the gunner looks through the inclined plate he sees the target and the reticle image. The redcle image consists of four concentric circles and three dots on a veaical line in the center of the field of view. The four concentric circles correspond to midpoint leads for speeds of 100, 200, 300, and 400 miles per hour at midpoint range of 1,000 yards, while the three dots are used to determine line of sight and to compensate for gravity pull on the projectile.

Figure 82. Multiple callber .50 machinegun, M55.


In fulfilling its antiair mission, the US Navy employs missiles in both surface-to-air and air-to-air roles. Some of the weapons available to NORAD for defense of the North American Continent are discussed below.


Sidewinder, which uses infrared passive homing (heat-seeking) guidance, was developed by the Navy and is designed for use in attacks against jet aircraft. It is also used by the Air Force and Marines. Against a mach 2 target at 60,000 feet altitude, the missile has a range of approximately 4 miles. This solid-propellant missile is the first air-to-air missile to have destroyed aircraft under actual combat conditions, having been successfully employed by Chinese Nationalists in the defense of Quemoy in 1958. The Sidewinder (fig 83) is more than 9 feet long, weighs more than 155 pounds, and delivers a high-explosive warhead. Sidewinders are carried (fig 84) as armament in the A4D, F4B, F3D, F8, MF1C, FIC, and F11A aircraft.

(page 77)

Figure 83. Sidewinder missile.

Figure 84. Navy Skyray (A4D) all-weather fighter with Sidewinder.

Sparrow III is the latest in this series of missiles. Its electronic homing guidance system permits attack of high-performance aircraft from all aspects, includlug head-on. An all-weather missile, its low-altitude capability, accuracy, and kill probability are excellent. Sparrow III is about12 feet long and weighs about 400 pounds. This solid-propellant missile, shown in figure 85 being fired from a Navy F3 Demon aircraft, attains a speed of 1,500 miles per hour, has a ceiling of 60, 000 feet, and employs a high-explosive warhead. Sparrow is carried aboard the Navy's all-weather fighters, the F3B Demon and F4B Phantom II.

(page 78)

Figure 85. Sparrow III fired from Demon aircraft.


Terrier (fig 86) has been operational with the US Fleet since 1956. It uses beam-rider guidance, is 13 inches in diameter and about 27 feet long, and, with booster, weighs about 3,000 pounds. It has a range of 20 miles up to an altitude of 80,000 feet and carries a highexplosive or nuclear warhead. This missile is fired in a sequence that is automatic from selection of the ready round in the magazine through launching; only seconds are required for the entire sequence. These missiles are currently operational on cruisers, destroyers, and a few carriers.

Talos, a surface-to-air, beam-riding missile (fig 87), uses a solid-fuel rocket motor for boost and a ramjet engine sustainer to attain a range of 100 miles. Tales is 30 inches in diameter and 32 feet in length and weighs 3,000 pounds (more than 7,000 pounds including booster). First fired at sea in 1959, the missile delivers a high-explosive or nuclear warhead at supersonic speed up to 80,000 feet altitude.

Tartar (fig 88) is designed for use on destroyer-type ships of the fleet. It is effective against both low- and high-altitude targets and carries a high-explosive warhead to a range of 17 miles and up to 65, 000 feet altitude. A dual-thrust, solid-propellant rocket accelerates the missile to supersonic velocity. Its overall length is about 12 feet, and its diameter is slightly more than 1 foot. Tartar is used as a secondary battery aboard Tales-equipped cruisers .

(page 79)

Figure 86. Terrier missile batteries on U.S.S. Boston.

Figure 87. Tales missile battery on guided missile cruiser U.S.S. Galvesnon.

Figure 88. Tartar missile being fired from U.S.S. Norton Sound.

(page 80)



The USAF Air Defense Command employs three types of all-weather interceptors and one type of clear airmass interceptor aircraft plus a variety of air-to-air missiles and rockets to accomplish its mission and act as a deterrent air defense force.

The F-1O1B Voodoo (fig 89) can be employed in fighter and reconnaissance roles as well as an interceptor. Produced in five models, the two-place F-1O1B is used as an interceptor, while the other models ale used as both interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft. The F-101B can develop a speed of mach 1.8 at 40,000 feet with a ceiling of more than 50,000 feet and a combat radius of 600 nautical miles. This interceptor is armed with a combination of AIR-2 (Genie) nuclear rockets and AIM-4 (Falcon) missiles.

Figure 89. F-101B Voodoo.

Figure 90. F-102 Delta Dagger.

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The F-102 Delta Dagger (fig 90) was the world's first supersonic all-weather Jet interceptor and the first to incorporate the area rule (Coke bottle) fuselage design. Using all electronic equipment, the radar locks on the-target and, at the right instant, the electronic fire control system automatically prepares and fires its weapon. Operational data show a supersonic speed with a ceiling of more than 50,000 feet and a combat radius of 600 nautical miles. Main armament is a combination of nuclear-armed AIM-26 and AIM-4 (Falcon) missiles.

The F-104 Starfighter (flg 91) is the most widely used fighter-interceptor in the free world air forces. Production for USAF has been completed, but variations of the F-104 are being built under the Military Assistance Program in Canada, Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy, and Japan. Greece and Turkey air forces also will use the F-104. The StarfigfiteI version employed in the United States has a speed of more than 1,400 miles per hour, a combat radius of 350 nautical miles, and a ceiling above 55,000 feet. The F-104 is armed with the AIM-9 (Sidewinder) and the Vulcan 2O-mm cannon (M61).

Figure 91. F-104 Starfighter.

Figure 92. F-106A Delta Dart.

(page 82)

The F-106A Delta Dart (fig 92), evolved from the F 102 Delta Dagger, has a more powerful engine; a redesigned tail, fuselage, and fuel tank; and improved electronics and armament. The aircraft's electronic guidance and fire control system has the capability of flying the aircraft soon after takeoff through a cruise position to an attack position, detecting targets, firing at optimum range, and immediately breaking off to seek other targets. At one time, me F-106A held the world speed record at 1,525. 9 miles per hour. Its combat radius is 600 nautical miles. The F-106A is armed with the AIR-2 (Genie) rockets and AIM-4 (Falcon) missiles. Many other jet aircraft, including the F-100, F-105, F4C, and F5A, can be used as fighters or interceptors; however, their prime mission is as fighters.


The primary armament of interceptor aircraft is air-to-air missiles. The Falcon family (fig 93) of air-to-air missiles comprises the smallest USAF guided missiles in production, having a length of approximately 6 feet, a diameter of about 6 inches, and a weight of about 100 pounds. Five basic versions of the Falcon have been produced. Some use radar-homing guidance; others use infrared homing. All have solid-propellant rocket motors. One later model has a nuclear warhead. All of the missiles have supersonic velocity (mach 2, plus the speed of the aircraft), a ceiling above 50,000 feet, and a range greater than 5 miles.

Figure 93. Falcon family of missiles (left to right): nuclear-capable AIM-26A, infrared AIM-4, radar homing AIM-4A, infrared AIM-4F, and radar homing AIM-4E.

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AIM-26 (formerly CAR-11), an advanced version of the Falcon family, combines the nuclear capability of the AIR-2 with AIM-4A accuracy. Carrying a small-yield nuclear warhead, its semiactive radar guidance system enables low-altitude intercept. The AUI-26 can be used on all F-102 aircraft.

Genie (AIR-2A) (fig 94) is an air-to-air rocket that carries a nuclear warhead. It is unguided and uses a solid-propellant rocket motor. Genie is carried under the wing of the F-89J interceptor and in the missile bays of the F-101 and F-106. The missile has a length of 10 feet, a diameter of 17 inches, and a weight of approximately 800 pounds. The missile reaches supersonic velocity (mach 3, plus the speed of the aircraft) and can destroy targets at altitudes above 50, 000 feet and at ranges of about 10 miles.

Figure 94. Genie rocket being loaded on the P-106A Delta Dart.


The CIM-1OB (Bomarc) missile resembIes an aircraft in configuration (fig 95) and uses a solid rocket booster and two supersonic ramjet engines to develop speeds in excess of mach 2 and reach altitudes above 70,000 feet. It is guided from the ground to the vicinity of the target by commands from the SAGE system. As the missile approaches the target, a homing guidance system on the missile rakes control and steers the missile to intercept. The nuclear warhead is detonated by a prmrimity fuze. Bomarc has a wing span of 18 feet, a length of about 57 feet, a height of 10 feet, a weight of about 15,000 pounds, and a range in excess of 400 nautical miles.

Figure 95. CIM-LOB(Bomarc) missile at instant of firing.

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Updated November 5, 1997