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Chapter 6

United States Army Air Defense Activities

(page 113)


Figure 113. Hinman Hall, US Army Air Defense School.


The US Army Air Defense School (fig 113) traces its lineage back to the Artillery Corps for instruction (later named the Coast Artillery School) established at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, on 5 April 1824.

By March 1942, the antiaircraft portion of the Coast Artillery School had outgrown the facilities at Fort Monroe. This portion of the Coast Artillery School was then transferred to Camp Davis, North Carolina, and was established as the Antiaircraft Artillery School coincident with the activation of the Antiaircraft Command, Army Ground Forces, an outgrowth of the Office of the Chief of Coast Artillery. In October 1944, the School moved to Fort Bliss, Texas.

(page 114)

The period following 1944 witnessed outstanding technological progress in air defense artillery weapons and a rapid growth in the responsibilities of the Air Defense School. Technologically, weapons progressed from the 40-mm, 90-mm, and 120-mm guns through the Skysweeper, Nike Ajar, and Nike Hercules, to Hawk and Improved Nike Hercules.

On 1 July 1957, after several changes in its name, the School was designated as the US Army Air Defense School.


The School (fig 114) provides all required career and specialist school education and training for selected students, both officer and enlisted, of all components of the Army. Emphasis in all instruction is on the art of leadership. The School also provides career and specialist school education and training for selected students of other US military services, military students from friendly nations, civilian personnel employed by US Government agencies, and personnel of industrial or research organizations under contract to the US Government.


The assistant commandant supervises the operation of the US Army Air Defense School, acts for the commandant as directed, and assumes the duties and responsibilities of the commandant during his absence.


The deputy assistant commandant assists in the supervision of the operation of the US Army Air Defense School and acts for the assistant commandant as directed.


The senior US Air Force representative develops and presents instruction on US Air Force subjects; performs liaison between US Air Force agencies and the School and USAADCEN agencies: and advises the commandant, staff, and faculty on organization, functions, doctrine, procedures, and capabilities of the US Air Force.

The senior US Marine Corps representative develops and presents instruction on US Navy and US Marine Corps subjects, performs liaison between US Marine Corps and US Navy agencies and the School and USAADCEN agencies, and exercises supervision over US Marine Corps personnel stationed at Fort Bliss.


The chief of the Budget and Management Office acts as the principal staff element for budgeting, internal control of funds, management engineering, manpower control, and statistical reporting and analysis. The Office serves as School coordinating agency for Project TRIM--Army Cost Reduction Program.

(page 115)




Figure 114. Air Defense School organization.

(page 116)


The secretary serves as the administrative executive for the School. He supports the operation of the School with administrative military personnel, message center, automatic data processing, student actions, academic records, bookstore, library civilian personnel, and special prolects services. He also supervises the School safety program and acts as the School contact point for senior foreign liaison representatives.


Commanding Officer, School Support Command, commands all units and personnel of the School Support Command. The School Support Command provides administrative, logistical, and training (nonacademic) support for US students and the School staff and faculty; provides administrative and logistical support for foreign military students; provides logistical and security services in support of School operations; and exercises summary and special courtsmartial jurisdiction Over assigned and attached US Army enlisted personnel.


The director of instruction directs the academic department, coordinates their instruction operation, supports the conduct of School operation, prepares plans for the academic requirements, and provides television Instructional facilities for the School. He maintains liaison with, provides guidance and support to, and acts as the School's point of contact for the US Army Human Research Unit.


The director of doctrine review and training literature develops equipment training plans and devices; acts as the combat development staff element of the School: prepares and keeps current air defense artillery Army-wide, applicatory-type training literature; provides staff supervision for preparation of School instructional publications; develops and revises air defense artillery and fire distribution system maintenance MOS evaluation test materials; studies and recommends revision of MOS specificiations for enlisted, warrant officer, and officer personnel; develops and revises a resycling policy for air defense artillery advanced individual training; assists in the production of air defense training films; and provides training support for the exchange officer at the School of Artillery, Manorbier, United Kingdom.


The director of the Command and Staff Department is responsible for conducting instsuction in command and staff matters of air defense, combined arms, nuclear weapons, and missile science; participates in the evolution and formulation of doctrine; participates in the preparation, review, and revision of Army-wide training literature, training films, and MOS evaluation tests; supports air defense instruction at other service schools; monitors School troops demonstrations and field exercises; and sponsors senior officer courses of instruction.

(page 117)


The director of the Missile Electronics and Fire Distribution Systems Department is responsible for conducting instruction in electronics, digital technology, and fire distribution systems; participates in the evolution and formulation of doctrine: participates in the preparerion. review and revision of Army-wide training literature, training films, and MOS evaluation rests; and maintains equipment.


The director of the Low Altitude Missile Department is responsible for conducting insrmction in the low-altinde air defense weapon systems and associated subjects: participates in the evolution and formulation of doctrine; participates in the preparation, review, and revision of Army-wide training literature, training films, and MOS evaluation tests; and maintains equipment.


The director of the Nigh Altitude Missile Department is responsible for conducting instruction in the operational Nike missile systems, their associated radar signal simulators, alternate battery and defense acquisition radars, and electronics warfare; participates in the evolution and formulation of doctrine; participates in the preparation, review, and revision of Army-wide training literature, training films, and MOS evaluation tests; and maintain. equipment.


The director of the Nonresident Instruction Department prepares and administers air defense elbensioa courses, prepares and provides instructional material for Army Reserve Components, and distributes School-published material to authorized agencies.


Since the initiation of air defense artillery instruction in 19(2 the Air Defense School has graduated more than 195,000 students. During World War II, more than 60,000 irdividUals were graduated from courses conducted at the School.

During FY 65, the School conducted 57 courses (US and non-US) for 313 graduated classes. Courses varied in length from 1 to 59 weeks. Included in the 7,088 graduates during FY 65 were 2,014 from other countries. In terms of air defense artillery skills, the graduates included:

Total graduates for each fiscal year since 1959 are indicated in figure 115.

(page 118)

Figure 115. Air Defense School graduates by fiscal years.


The US Army Combat Developments Command Air Defense Agency (USACDCADA) was organized as a class II activity at Fort Bliss on 1 July 1962. This agency is part of the US Army Combat Developments Command (USACDC) established in the 1961 reorganization of the Army. USACDCADA is responsible to the Commanding General, USACDC, through the US Army Combat Developments Command, Combined Arms Group, Fort Leavenworth, and is one of 10 branch or combat functional agencies of the Combined Arms Group.

USACDCADA is charged with determining how air defense artillery units should be organized and equipped and how they should fight. These tasks are accomplished by studying future requirements and preparing tables of organization and equipment for all air defense artillery units, qualitative materiel development objectives, qualitative materiel requirements, small development requirements for air defense artillery equipment, and doctrinal field manuals on air defense artillery employment. USACDCADA represents the user in the development cycle, participates in development of the maintenance package, and reviews equipment technical manuals.

(page 119)

The development of organizational concepts, materiel requirements, and doctrine requires close coordination with many agencies. USACDCADA maintains liaison with the Communications-Electronics Agency, USACDC, for the use of frequencies; with the Aviation Agency; USACDC, for the use of airspace; and with other combined arms agencies as the plans and programs become more finalized. Liaison is also maintained with major oversea commands and Allied nations to facilitate a fully coordinated national and international air and space defense program and to take advantage of technical developments made by others. Close coordinadon with the ALT Defense School, Air Defense Board, and other agencies at Fort Bliss permits taking advantage of the knowledge of air defense artillery personnel assigned to these agencies. USACDCADA keeps tbese agencies informed of new developments so that future requirements for training mechanics, operators, and supervisors for future air defense artillery systems can be planned.


The US Army Air Defense Board, a class n: activity at Fort Bliss, is a subordinate command of the US Army Test and Evaluation Command. Aberdeen Proving Ornmd, Maryland. The Board's mission is to plan aad conduct service rests, evaluations, check tests, and confirmatory tests. It participates in planning and conducting engineering tests: planning, supervising, and monitoring Mop tests; and providing guidance during development of air defense artillery equipment.

Included in the Board's general field of responsibility are air defense artillery weapon systems, fire distribution systems, air defense artillery ECM and ECCM equipment and devices, and rmdeaIdemolltion munitioes. It furnishes guidance to Department of the Army in selecting training devices, preparing training literature, determining maintenance packages, and conducting in-process reviews during equipment development. The Board works with the contractors and Army agencies concerned to insure that equipment meets military characteristics and user requirements. .Close liaison is maintained with the Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force and with Unfted Kingdom and Canadian standardization representatives on air defense artillery items of mutual interest.

The Board is organized into three divisions to accomplish its responsibilities. The Missile Systems Test Division is responsible for test research and development pertaining to surface-to-air missile systems, predicted-fire weapons, target drones, nuclear warheads, and nuclear demolition munitions. The Electronics Systems Test Division is responsible for matters pertaining to fire distribution systems, radars, ECM and BCCM components, IFF devices, engine generators, and simulators. The Support Division is responsible for gathering and reducing test data and providing general support for Board test activities.


The US Army Air Defense Human Research Unit is a military organization responsible for providing military support and guidance to contract agencies engaged in human factors research in air defense. The support and guidance is furnished to the collocated Human Resources Research Office (HUMRRO) Division No. 5 (Air Defense). This division is an organization element of the Human Resources Research Office, a non-Government agency of The George Washington University operating under contract with Department of the Army.

(page 120)

The research tasks presently being conducted by HUMRRO Division No. 5 are concerned with:

In addition, explorafory studies are being conducted to determine the desirability of conducting further research in the following fields:

McGregor Guided Missile Range, organized under the Range Command, US Army Air Defense Center, Fort Bliss, is the largest inland air defense missile range in the free world. Located in the State of New Mexico, the range encompasses 1,210 square miles (684,000 acres).

To meet the increasing need for a larger range and to replace the range at Red Canyon, New Mexico, McGregor Range was established on 13 July 1956. The range became operational as a Nike guided missile range in April 1957. From April 1957 until June 1959, the support of package firings remained the primary mission of McCregor Range.

Buildup continued and by mid-1959 McGregor Range was capable of supporting ARADCOM annual service practice units. On 12 August 1959, the first missile was fired at McGregor Range in support of ARADCOM annual service practice. McCregor Guided Missile Range has supported all Nike Afax and Nike Hercules training firings by units from throughout the free world with the exception of a few battalions conducting service practice on site.

With the activation of the first Hawk battalion in 1959, plans got underway at McGregor for support of the Hawk training firing missions. The first Hawk missile was fired there in June 1960.

McGregor Range, in addition to its training mission, has hosted several outstanding programs under the supervision of the US Army Air Defense Center. Thousands of United States citizens and citizens of Allied countries have seen demonstrations of our air defense capabilities. Nearly 10, 000 surface-to-air missile firing missions have been completed at McGregor Range.


Guided missile materiel is under constant study by manufacturers, tactical units, technical agencies, the US Army Air Defense Board, Combat Developments Command Air Defense Agency, and the Air Defense School. Studies are conducted to detect materiel weaknesses and to improve maintenance and operational procedures.

(page 121)

To assist the School in keeping abreast of the Latest air defense artillery materiel developments, representatives are stationed at the School of Artillery, Pembrokeshire, Manorbier, United Kingdom; at the pacific Field Office, Nike X Prolect, Kwajalefn Atoll, Marshall Islands; and at the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Whippany, New Jersey.

The close worldng relationship of the School with the Air Defense Board and Combat Developments Command Air Defense Agency is a contributing factor in keeping abreast of technical developments. The Air Defense Executive Conference (ADEX) grew from this relationship .


The Air Defense Executive Conference was established to create a relaxed, friendly, end informal atmosphere for exchanging air defense artillery information and developing a mutual understanding of air defense artillery problems. The conference consists of monthly meetings of senior members of the four principal oganiurtions at Fort Bliss who have Merest in air defense matters: the Air Defense School, Air Defense Board, Combat Developments Command Air Defense Agency, and US Army Training Center, Air Defense.

To broaden the scope of information exchanged, standing invitations to participate are extended to other Army agencies closely associated with solving air defense problems. These include the Deputy Assistant Commanrlaa and Directors, USAADS, and a representative from the US Army Air Defense Board, US Army Combat Developments Command Air Defense Agency, US Army Air Defense Center (G3 and G4), US Army Combat Developments Command Nuclear Group, US Army Air Defense Command(2), US Army Missile Command, US Army Ordnance Guided Missile School, Human Resources Research Office, and White Sands Missile Range.

The meetings, conducted at Fort Bliss, are primarily concerned with doctrine, policy, planning, teeting, training, and future developments, the approach being at the executive command level.

Army, Fort Bliss, Texas SEC 125239

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Updated November 5, 1997