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Chapter 5

Air Defense Artillery Training Matters
and Instruction

(page 92)

Chapter 5



The USAR School Air Defense Officer Career Course provides a means for Reserve officers not on active duty to participate in the Army military education program. This course of instruction parallels, as closely as possible, air defense portions of the Artillery Officer Career Course taught at the US Army Air Defense School.

The course is a 4-year program. Each year is subdivided into a Reserve duty phase of 48 hours of instruction presented at the USAR School and an active duty phase of 80 hours presented at the Air Defense School at Fort Bliss. Persons desiring additional information should contact the USAR School in their area.


For branch and general military science ROTC cadets, the Reserve Program Division provides orientation instructional material; a subject schedule, Role of Artillery; and~the ROTC manual, Branches of the Army.


A special catalog, Staff Training Material for Reserve Components, is published annually by the Air Defense School. The staff training program assists National Guard and Reserve unit commanders in training subortinate commanders and air defense artillery staff officers at battalion through division levels. Agencies desiring catalogs may obtain them by writing to Commandant, US Army Air DefenseSchool, Box 9300, ATTN: NRI Department, Fort Bliss, Texas 79916.


The US Army Air Defense School publishes a monthly list of instructional material. These lists include current material on air defense and associated military subjects taught in the School resident and nonresident courses. Agencies desiring to be placed on the distribution list should write to Commandant, US Army Air Defense School, Box 9300, ATTN: NRI Deparment, Fort Bliss, Texas 79916.


The Army extension course program is designed to provide progressive military education for personnel of all components of the Army. Extension course study provides one of

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the best means for Reserve component officers to satisfy recommended military educational requirements for promotion and to earn retirement points. For active duty officers who desire to prepare themselves for new duty assignments or resident instruction elbension courses can provide valuable assistance. All members of the Armed Forces, Department of Defense civilians, and Allied military personnel (through Military Assistant Advisory Group (MAAC)) may enroll in this program.

Air defense artillery extension courses closely parallel corresponding resident courses, offering an excellent means for officers and enlisted men of all components to continue their military education. The basic course provides the newly commissioned officer with general training in air defense artillery. The familiarization course provides basic branch training for officers transferring to air defense artillery from other branches. The career courses are designed to broaden the officer's professional knowledge.

Completion of the basic, familiariuction, or career extension courses provides an officer with the same credit as the corresponding resident course. Preparatory courses for resident instruction cover those subject areas that have been found to be the most difficult for resident students and have proven a valuable aid for the prospective student. Special courses and selected subcourses are designed to provide personnel with instruction on specificsubject areas. Six special extension courses are available for enlisted personnel, These courses provide background information for a particular air defense artillery MOS to enable enlisted personnel to perform their assignments more efficiently. Selection of subcourses and their administrative sequence are determined by the students.

Effective 1 July 1966, the Artillery Officer Career(Reserve Component) Course -- Air Defense C24 will be revised to parallel the Air Defense Officer Career Course (USAR School) phase by phase. Resident instructibn at Fort Bliss will be combined with extension course study organized to permit student completion in 5 years or less. At the same time, Artillery Officer Career Extension Course - Air Defense E24 will be changed to eight phases of nonresident instruction, designed to permit student completion in 6 years. Phases of this course will parallel common subjects and essential branch material presented in the USAR School career course. When these changes are completed, students can change from one course to the other at their convenience without loss of time or credit.

The extension course program is constantly being updated. During 1965, the Air Defense School published four new subcourses and revised 16 existing subcourses. In the listing below, new subcourses are marked by asterisks.
Subcourse - Credit
No. Title Hours
*603 GEOREF 3
605 Counterinsurgency and Unconventional Warfare 10
610 U.S. Continental Army Command 2
611 ADA Staff Procedures, S1 and S4 13
612 ADA Staff Procedures, S2 and S3 11
613 ADA Staff Estimates and Orders 11
625 ADA Communications 19
631 ADA Fire Distribution Systems 12
640 Air Defense Electronic Warfare 12
675 Hawk Familiarization 12
676 Hawk Guided Missile System 26
683 Introduction to Surface-to-Air Missiles 10
*694 Nike Hercules Battery--Parr 1 14
*695 Nike Hercules Battery--part II 12
714 AW Tactics and Gunnery 19
716 Introduction to Air Defense Tactics 9
717 Basic Air Defense Tactics 15
719 Advanced Air Defense Tactics 15
*726 ADA Automatic Weapons Materiel--Gun M42 15
763 Introduction to Armored Cavalry Units 3

TRAINING LITERATURE The US Army Combat Developments Command Air Defense Agency is responsible for preparing all doctrinal air defense artillery training literature published as field manuals. The US Army Air Defense School has the responsibility for preparing all Army-wide, applicatory-type, air defense artillery training literature in the 44-series published as field manuals, trainingcirculars, DA pamphlets, Army training programs, Army subject schedules, and Army training tests. Training literature prepared by the US Army Air Defense School which has recently been published includes:

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FM 44-15 Air Defense Crewman Individual Training Guide
(C) FM 44-15-1 Nike Hercules Fire Control Crewman Training Guide (U)
FM 44-82 Procedures and Drills for Nike Hercules Systems
FM 44-98 Air Defense Artillery Engagement Simulator --Guided Missile System Radar Signal Simulator, AN/TPQ-21 (Hawk)
(C) FM 44-98A Air Defense Artillery Engagement Simulator --Guided Missile System Radar Signal Simulator, AN/TPQ-21 (Hawk) (U)
FM 44-57, Change 3 Service of the Piece: Multiple Caliber .50 Machine Gun Motor Carriage M16A1 and Multiple Caliber .50 Machine Gun Trailer Mount M55
FM 44-61, Change 2 Self-Propelled Twin 40-mm Gun M42
TC 44-12 Air Defense Artillery Radar Clutter and Coverage Diagrams
ATP 44-2 Air Defense Artillery Brigades, Groups, and Missile Units
ASubjScd 44-1 Army Air Defense Fire Distribution Systems
ASubjScd 44-2 Visual Aircraft Recognition
ASubjScd 44-3 Air Defense Artillery Organization and Material
ASubjScd 44-4 Army Mr Defense Command Post Exercise
ASubjScd 44-5 Reconnaissance, Selection, and Occupation of Position for Air Defense Artillery Units
ASubjScd 44-6 Air Defense Artillery Artillery Automatic in Surface-to-Air Role
ASubjScd 44-10 Section Training of the Air Defense Element, Tactical Operations Center
ASubjScd 44-11 Tactical Air Control Center and Control and Reporting Center Sections
ASubjScd 44-12 Air Defense Artillery Service Practice Procedures
ASubjScd 44-21 Air Defense Artillery Operations and Intelligence Section
ASubjScd 44-30 Air Defense Artillery Ammunition
ASubjScd 44-31 Air Defense Artillery Service Practice Safety
ASubjScd 44-17F20 Advanced Individual Training and Refresher Training of Defense (181.1) Acquisition Radar Crewman, MOS 17F20 (181.1)
ASubjScd 44-16D10 Advanced Individual Training and Refresher Training of Hawk Missile Crewman, MOS 16D10 and 16D20
ASubjScd 44-16El0 Advanced Individual Training and Refresher Training of Hawk Missile Fire ControlCrewman, MOS 16E10 and 16E20
ASubjScd 44-16C Advanced Individual Training and Refresher Training of Air Defense
(179) Artillery Fire Control Crewman (Nike Hercules), M06 16C10 (179. 0) and 16C20 (179. 1)
ASublScd 44-17H20 Advanced Individual Training and Refresher Training of Fire Distribution System Crewman, MOS 1?H20
ASubjScd 44-16B10 Advanced Individual Training and Refresher Training of Air Defense
(177) Missile Crewman (Nike Hercules), MOS 1~B10 (177.0)
ASubJScd 44-13F Advanced Individual Training and Refresher Training of Air Defense
(192) Artillery Automatic Weapons Crewman, MOS 13P10 (192.0) and 13F20 (192. 1)
ASubfScd 44-16H Advanced Individual Training and Refresher Training of Air Defense
(151) Artillery Operations and Intelligence Specialist, MOS 16M10 (151.0) and 16H20 (151. 1)
ATT 44-2 Air Defense Artillery Brigade (Group)

Training literature prepared by the US Army Air Defense School which will be published in the near future includes:
FM 44-12-2 Air Defense Artillery Engagement Simulator; Guided Missile System Radar-Signal Simulator Station AN/MPQ-TI (Nike Hercules)
FM 44-15-2 Nike Hercules Missile Crewman Training Guide

Other air defense artillery training literature in the nondoctrinal field programed for development or revision during 1966 or 1967 includes:
FM 23-( ) Redeye
PM 44-15-3 Air Defense Missile Fire Control Crewman (Hawk) Training Guide
FM 44-15-5 Defense Acquisition Radar Crewman Training Guide
FM 44-15-6 Air Defense Artillery Forward Area Weapons Crewman Training Guide
FM 44-15-7 Chaparral Crewman Training Guide
FM 44-( ) Air Defense Artillery Simulator--Evaluator System (AN/ MPQ-42)
FM 44-( ) Air Defense Artillery Hawk Battery Procedures and Drills
FM 44-( ) Air Defense Artillery Brigade, Group, and Battalion Techniques and Procedures
FM 44-( ) Air Defense Artillery Missile Battery Techniques and Procedures
FM 44-( ) Light Air Defense Artillery Battery Techniques and Procedures
ATP44-( ) Air Defense Artillery Forward Area Weapons Units
ASubjScd 44-13 Air Defense Artillery Automatic Weapons in the Ground Support Role

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Project 25478 Introduction to Air Defense Artillery Engagement Simulator- Guided Missile System Radar-Signal Simulator Station AN/MPQ-TI (Nike Hercules) (B&W, 30 min)
Project 25480 Introduction to Army Air Defense Weapons (color, 30 min)
Project 25545 Nike Hercules Missile--Part I--Inspection, Unpacking, and Initial Assembly(B&W, 30 min) (to replace TF 44-2815)
Project 25546 Nike Hercules Missile--Part IV--Final Preparation of Warheads and Forward Body Section(B&W, 30 min) (to replace TF 44-2615)
- Infrared Radiation and Detection(color, 30 min)

Air defense artillery training films scheduled for production in 1966 include:
- Use and Operation of Radar Sets AN/FPS-69 and AN/FPS-71 With Consoles (B&W, 40 min)
- Programing the Hawk Engagement Simulator. AN/TPQ-2I (color, 20 min)
- Redeye--Pea I--Introduction (B&W, 20 min)
- Redeye--Part II--Employment and Tactics(B&W, 30 min)
- Nike Hercules Guided Missile System: Organizational Safety--Part I--General Safety (color, 30 min)
- Nike Hercules Guided Missile System: Organizational Safety--Part II--E~xplosive Safety (color, 30 min)

MOS EVALUATION TESTS The US Army Air Defense School provides the Enlisted Evaluation Center(EEC), an agency of the Office of Personnel Operations, Department of the Army, with the necessary material to produce military occupational specialty (MOS) evaluation tests for 15 air defense artillery MOS's containing 37 skill levels and requiring the annual review and change of approximately 7,400 test questions. The School also provides the EEC with the necessary material to produce 10 fire distribution system maintenance MOS evaluation tests containing 16 skill levels and requiring the annual review and change of approximately 3,200 test questions.

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The Basic Electronics Division, US Army Air Defense School, is continuing its experiment in attempting to make instruction more appealing and informative through the use of audiovisual reviews. This automatic audiovisual presentation uses a standard tape recorder, a 35-mm slide projector, and a programer.

Reviews on the direct current block of instruction have been used, and the students indicate that these short reviews help them understand the material. Additional reviews are presently being prepared on the alternating current block of instruction.

Color slides of actual equipment are used for the reviews on test equipment. It has been found that negative slides of drawings and circuit components are more effective than positive slides. Use of color to emphasize certain portions of a circuit or key points also has been effective .

These presentations can be used as a continuous presentation or can be used by showing only a small portion of the material at a time. The presentation can be stopped any time and then restarted by stopping and starting the tape recorder. The slide projector is controlled by the tape recorder through the programer.

To date, programs have been prepared only as reviews to supplement classroom or laboratory instruction. Due to the flexibility and simplicity of operation of the equipment, it is believed there are many other possible uses of this audiovisual technique.

After more material has been developed, it is planned to try various methods to improve student learning.

The Guided Missile Systems Officer Course (4F-1181) (fig 103), conducted at Fort Bliss, is an advanced educational-type course in which the sciences relating to guided missiles and space technology and the practical aspects of all guided missiles are taught. Its primary purpose is to provide commanders with staff officers who are capable of analyzing past, present, and future developments and trends in the scientific field as related to concepts of modern warfare. No other course in the Army school system so adequately prepares officers for the duties of senior staff adviser, G3 planner, troubleshooter and analyst, technical intelligence officer, liaison officer to civilian or military agencies, research and development specialist, or evaluator on missile systems.

This course offers a special opportunity for officers who are interested in an advanced education at college level with recognized college credits. Those who meet the prerequisites can pursue undergraduate and graduate level studies in this 9-month course under a select faculty distinguished by advanced degrees in electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, aerospace, physics, and chemical engineering.

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Selected Officers



Figure 103. Guided Missile Systems Officer Course (4F-1181).

It is recognized that education means efficiency, preparedness, and the ability to deal with the unelq~ecred. The far-reaching effects of the rapid pace of modern technology are viewed to advantage by the personnel educated to analyze their implications. For the man with an education, the possession of knowledge means strength, stature, respect, opportunity, advancement, self satisfaction, and security.

The course (fig 104) starts with a study of mathematics from calculus through differential equations to LaPlace transforms, statistics, and probability. It progresses to the study of modern physics, statics, kinematics, and celestial mechanics. With this background, the student then studies the theory and design of all types of guided missile propulsion systems, aerodynamics, guidance and control systems, analog and digital computers, thermodynamics and heat transfer, and space technology. Finally, the student goes on field trips to White Sands Missile Range, Holloman Air Force Base, Fort Sill, and to selected research and development agencies on the West Coast to receive lectures from key scientists who are spurring the technological advance.

(page 102)

Figure 104. Guided Missile Systems Officer Course curriculum.

The course prerequisites are one semester of integral and differential calculus, one semester of college physics, a security clearance of interim SECRET, and a minimum rank of first lieutenant.

The Guided Missile Systems Officer Course is open to all branches of all services and selected foreign officers from England and Canada. The input to each of the two classes per year--one starting in February, the second in August--is by Department of the Army selection and individual application. Unit personnel officers will assist in preparing application forms. Further information can be obtained from the US Army Air Defense School, Fort Bliss, Texas.


In a continuing effort to provide the field with a better trained technician, the Air Defense Division, Human Resources Research Office(HUMRRO), has developed an experimental training program with the cooperation and assistance of the Air Defense School. Conventionally trained technicians begin their study of radar systems by lectures on basic principles of electronics and progress, through schematic diagrams, to a large radar component. Under the HAWKEYE concept, students are introduced on the first day to the entire item of equipment and immediately put to work at operating it. Obviously, untrained students react with a flood of questions which provides the formula for this experimental approach.

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This approach, known as functional context training, is based on three essential principles: a student must increase his skills if he is to perform assigned tasks, equipment is taught by encountering the components in operation, and theory is introduced only where there is a clearly established need. HAWKEYE is concerned with testing the training concept of progressing from the whole to the components versus the present system of progressing from the components to the whole.

HAWKEYE is being conducted, utilizing the Hawk Continuous-Wave Radar Maintenance Course presently taught at the Air Defense School. A class of 31 enlisted students was selected for the experiment. This class will complete the course in January 1966. Since this will be the initial application of the HAWKEYE program of instruction, it is expected that some desirable modifications of the instructional methods, sequencing, and training aids will become apparent during training. Therefore, to insure the validity of this experimental approach, a second class will be selected in CY 66 for similar training in the same course.

Results of this particular application of functional context training will not be available for publication until after the second class has completed training. Preliminary experiments in teaching by means of progressing from the whole to the part were first tried by HUMRRO attheUS ArmySignalSchool, Fort Monmouth, NewJersey. More extensive experimentation led to the full-scale course now being conducted at the Air Defense School.


The Air Defense School is conducting an experiment aimed at reducing the attrition rate in its technician courses. The area of highest attrition is the basic electricity portion of the basic electronics subcourse, which is where the School has focused its attention. In an attempt to help the slower learners, the 227.1 Experiment No. 1 (fig 105) was evolved. The 227.1 Hawk Missile and Launcher Maintenance Course (121.227.1) was selected for this experiment, the test beginning 1 September 1965 with Class No. 3-66.

The concept for the experiment calls for the addition of a "Zero Week" at the beginning of the course. During this week the students take an electronics placement test and a mathematics test. Based on the results of these tests and the students' area aptitude scores in EL, VE, and AR, the School hopes to spot potential failures. The class will be divided into two groups at this time. Students in Group 1 will be the average learners and will proceed through the course under the normal program of instruction.

Students in Group 2 will be those students indicated to be potential failures and slow learners. This group will receive the 140-hour block of basic electricity in a slower, more detailed 186-hour block to provide a solid foundation for future learning. Upon completion of this block, Group 2 will then be integrated into Class No. 4-66 for the basic electronics instruction and equipment instruction as prescribed in the normal program of instruction.

In addition to the testing in "Zero Week, " the students will receive instruction to improve their study and reading habits and methods, a mathematics refresher course, and Hawk equipment roundrobin instruction for motivational purposes.

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It is hoped that this program will reduce the number of failures, thus saving money and man-hours and producing more and better air defense artillery maintenance technicians. If this experiment reduces the attrition rate as much as hoped, the program will be included in all technician courses taught in the Air Defense School.

Figure 105. 227.1 Experiment No. 1.


Each year hundreds of foreign students, many with dependents, arrive at Fort Bliss to receive instruction on the Nike Hercules and Hawk systems. The Air Defense School is charged with providing them with military services, recreational facilities, entertainment programs, social activities, and a basic understanding of the American way of life.

Training is accomplished through two Government programs: the Military Assistance Program (MAP) and the Military Assistance Sales (MAS) Program. MAP is the United States program for providing military assistance under the Mutual Security Act of 1954 as distinct from economic aid. This assistance includes furnishing of military materiel and training assistance through grant aid or military sales to eligible nations as specified by Congress. Under the MAS Program, purchase of an air defense artillery system by a country and training of that country's personnel at Fort Bliss are authorized.

(page 105)

Training is conducted for individual students and groups to provide the key personnel required for a complete unit, such as a battalion. The normal procedure for training a unit (tig 106) is described below.

Initially, Department of the Army gives the US Army Air Defense Center a time frame in which a non-US missile battalion is to be trained. The Air Defense Center recommends a starring date for the training, based on its capacity to train a battalion during the recommended time frame. If the starting date is agreeable to the nation concerned and if equipment is available, the Air Defense School is requested to schedule and conduct training for battalion key personnel.

Figure 106. Typical non-US Hawk unit training program.

The School must schedule key personnel so that all personnel finish their courses simultaneously. Because of the difference in length between supervisory, operations, and technician courses, the starting dates for courses are staggered.

Another factor which enters into determining the starting dates for the classes is the English-speaking ability of the students. It the students are not fluent in English, as determined by the MAAG from the country concerned, the course length is increased to allow for interpreters to translate instruction in the classroom.

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Upon completion of School training, the battalion draws its equipment and begins unit training under the US Army Training Center, Air Defense, at Fort Bliss. The Center trains fire control crewmen, missile launcher crewmen, and radio operators, creating the new missile unit by combining School-trained personnel with Center-trained personnel to complete the unit package.

Tactical exercises and unit proficiency tests are conducted to uncover any existing training and equipment problems. Upon completion of the unit training cycle, the package normally conducts a live missile service practice at Mccregor Range to determine its combat readiness. When the package is determined to be combat ready, the unit returns to its home country for deployment.

The Air Defense School has been an active participant in the foreign student training program since 1953. More than 10,000 Allied students from 48 countries have been trained at the Air Defense School (fig 107).

Figure 107. Students from 48 countries trained at Air Defense School.

The Allied Student Battalion was organized to handle this large input of Allied students. Divided into seven sections-adminiscrafion, operations, activities, language laboratory, supply, mail, and buildings and grounds--the battalion can supply all of the many needs of the Allied students.

In addition to operational duties, the battalion has the responsibility for conducting an effective informational program about the United States. Through various means of familiarizing the Allied personnel with the United States, the student is able to gain a more informed impression of this country.

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The informational program is conducted by a special division of the battalion, called the activities section, which is responsible for the orientation of students from the time they arrive until they depart. The program is conducted in a manner to acquaint the personnel with the 10 informational objectives set forth by DA. These informational objectives are as follows: Federal, State, and localgovernment; judicial system; two-parry system; free press; minority groups; diversity of American life; agriculture; economy; labor; and education.

The activities section is organized into five basic subdivisions, each one presenting a clear picture of the United States in its own mannel. Although each section functions separately, all work together to provide the overall program. A brief description of each follows .


Upon arrival in Fl Paso, each student, after being met and assisted in getting settled, is given a welcome to the School by the Commanding Officer, Allied Student Battalion. Following necessary administrative processing, he is given a thorough briefing on the activities which will be available to him and his dependents during his off-duty hours. He is then shown a series of six DA·approved travelog films about the United States, each depicting a different geographical area of our country. Following the films, on each of tan, afternoons, he is taken on tours of the post and El Paso to farirlliarize him with the new surroundingsi Included in the Fort Bliss tours is a visit to the post exchange, commissary, officers':and NCO clubs, service clubs, theaters, and the building where his first class will be held. The El Paso tour visits points of interest in the city and concludes at a modern shopping center.

Following This initial orientation which is required for all incoming students, the information program is conducted snictly on a volupcarybasis. Activities designed to shaw items typically American are then offered to the students, and they may participate if they desire. The other four subsections described below are conducted on this basis.


This branch organizes local (fig 108) and out-of-town (fig 109) tours as well as offering navel assistance to those traveling on their own. Its activities are conducted on afternoons, weekends, and holidays.

Tours to places in the immediate El Paso area are conducted weekday afternoons upon the individual classes' request. Trips to banks, manufacturing companies, government agencies, schools, refineries, television stndios, newspapers, and food processing companfes are common. Each four lasts about 2t hours and is conducted by a representative of the company concerned. In many instances, students are given free samples and mementos of their trip. During the period January 1964 to June 1965, 225 local tours were conducted to 28 different places with over 6,000 students participating.

One-day trips by commercial bus to points within a 200-mile radius of El Paso are conducted each weekend. These trips are held in conjunction with various industries, national parks, and Chambers of Commerce in the area. Tours visit such places as Carlsbad

(page 108)

Caverns, White Sands National Monument, Kennecott Copper Corporation, and Mescalero Indian Reservation. These tours are furnished at no cost to the students, except for lunch, and are on a first-come, first-served basis. Anywhere from 35 to 120 students participate in each tour. Approximately six trips are conducted each month. During the period January 1964 to June 1965, out-of-town tours to 18 different places were made with 5,800 students participating.

Special out-of-town tours are taken over 3- to 4-day holiday periods. Tours are conducted in coordination with local bus and travel agencies, and students visit California, Colorado, Grand Canyon, and other places of interest. Cost of the trip is paid entirely by the students, and a US escort accompanies them. During the 18-month period, four tours with 526 students and dependents participating were conducted.

Figure 108. Allied students tour an El Paso brewery.

Vacation assistance is offered each student traveling on his own. Through close coordination with State travel bureaus, this battalion is able to furnish each student with maps, brochures, and guides to each point of interest on his trip. Additionally, the student receives a personal letter of introduction, and if visiting California, a discount ticket to Disneyland. Reservations at various military installations, YMCA's, and motels are also made upon request.


The sports program at the Allied Student Battalion is a unique one. Different sports from all over the world are offered to meet the diversified interests of the students. Among the sports offered are judo, karate, kendo, European handball (fig 110), soccer, baseball, water polo, volleyball, and fencing. The battalion has converted an unused building on the post to the Allied Student Gym, and it is from here that the program is directed. All facilities, including equipment and uniforms, are provided.

Intercountry competition is conducted in European handball, soccer, and volleyball, and trophies aregiven to the winners, runners-up, andthe team displaying the best sportsman ship. Since all countries are interested in keeping their men physically fit while attending the United States Army Air Defense School, the program is always an active one.

(page 109)

Figure 109. Allied students stop at scenic spot on trip to Cloudcroft, New Mexico.

Figure 110. European handball game between German students.

(page 110)


Another subdivision of the activities section is a special events program, charged with keeping the students up to dare on happenings in and around El Paso. Through a weekly newsletter to each student, they are kept informed on occurrences such as concerts, rodeos, plays, sporting events, and other special happenings which they may attend. Through encouraging these students to attend as many of these events as possible, it is felt that they will gain some idea of our American culture. For many events, tickets are donated free of charge by El Paso civilians. For others, the battalion purchases tickets for interested students. In most cases, if free tickets are not made available, the student is able to obtain them at a reduced cost. During the past 18 months, over 1,800 free tickets have been provided to the students.

Another important function of the special events department is the guest speaker program. Through close liaison with the El Paso community, various civic and church groups and high schools periodically request students from the countries in residence to speak to their group concerning their country. Students give talks on religion, education, culture, or generally about their country. Many times they show films or slides to accompany their speech.

This section also assists the countries in putting on special shows for the general public. Students frequently put on shows at local libraries, YMCA's, and in connection with special happenings in El Paso. During the period January 1964 to June 1965, 25 shows with an attendance of more than 7, 500 persons were held. Of special note is the Allied radio program. Each Sunday from 1000 to 1030, the Allied students present announcements and music of their country on a local radio station. The students, with assistance of this seaioa, plan, tape, and present the show themselves.

Additional events conducted for the students are the graduation photo and the honorary citizenship program. Upon graduation, each student receives a photograph of his class from the battalion and is presented with an honorary citizenship of El Paso by the mayor or his representative.


The most important and most complete introduction to the United States is accomplished through the host family programs. These programs are simple, casual hospitality programs with local El Paso and Fort Bliss families periodically hosting Allied personnel in their homes (fig 111). Both military and civilian programs are conducted.

The battalion works with theAUied military program committee of the El Paso Council for International Visitors. This committee, completely voluntary, is responsible for locating suitable El Paso families who ~ould like to have Allied personnel in their home on a sustained basis. Basically, the committee supplies the families, and the battalion provides the students and administrative assistance. The students and the families are then introduced.

Families entertain the students at a minimum of once a month; however, most of the time it is more Frequent. They participate in a variety of events, including barbecues,

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dinners, watching television, or just talking. Families are asked not to furnish lavish entertainment, but rather to simply include the students in their everyday activities.

Figure 111. Foreign students in home of civilian family sponsor.

Only students who speak English, those who will be at Fort Bliss for 3 months or longer, and those who desire a host family participate in the program.

Through this program the students get a firsthand idea of what a typical American family is like, what its problems, ideas, and interests are, and how it utilizes its leisure time. The families in return get to know well some of the personnel from various countries.

These two programs have contributed greatly to promoting understanding. Favorable comments are continually being received by families from their former students after they return home. In addition, as an indirect result of the program, Fl Paso clubs have been formed in at least four different countries. During the period January 1964 to June 1965, 471 families hosted 995 students and 440 dependents.

The informational program as established at the Allied Student Battalion is a unique one. Although everything except the initial orientation is voluntary, the program is being constantly expanded to include the vast number of students desiring to participate. During their stay

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here, the foreign personnel are anxious to see as much and learn as much as possible about the United States. ?hrough offering assistance and a variety of events in which to participate, the informational program is able to fulfill the student's wish.


Although not directly a part of the informational program, an Allied Student Chapel (fig 112) has been provided on the post. Presently, a Protestant and a Catholic chaplain from Germany are in residence To administer to the religious needs of German personnel here. Services are conducted each week, and the chaplains maintain regular office hours. In the past, Belgian and Netherlands chaplains have also been stationed here.

Figure 112. Allied student chapel.

If you have comments or suggestions, Send e-mail to Ed Thelen

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Updated November 5, 1997